English Synonyms and Antonyms
Name in the most general sense, signifying the word by which a person or thing is called or known, includes all other words of this group; in this sense every noun is a name; in the more limited sense a name is personal, an appellation is descriptive, a title is official. In the phrase William the Conqueror, King of England, William is the man's name, which belongs to him personally, independently of any rank or achievement; Conqueror is the appellation which he won by his acquisition of England; King is the title denoting his royal rank. An epithet (Greek epitheton, something added, from epi, on, and tithemi, put) is something placed upon a person or thing; the epithet does not strictly belong to an object like a name, but is given to mark some assumed characteristic, good or bad; an epithet is always an adjective, or a word or phrase used as an adjective, and is properly used to emphasize a characteristic but not to add information, as in the phrase "the sounding sea;" the idea that an epithet is always opprobrious, and that any word used opprobriously is an epithet is a popular error. Designation may be used much in the sense of appellation, but is more distinctive or specific in meaning; a designation properly so called rests upon some inherent quality, while an appellation may be fanciful. Among the Romans the prenomen was the individual part of a man's name, the "nomen" designated the gens to which he belonged, the cognomen showed his family and was borne by all patricians, and the agnomen was added to refer to his achievements or character. When scientists name an animal or a plant, they give it a binary or binomial technical name comprising a generic and a specific appellation. In modern use, a personal name, as John or Mary, is given in infancy, and is often called the given name or Christian name, or simply the first name (rarely the prenomen); the cognomen or surname is the family name which belongs to one by right of birth or marriage. Style is the legal designation by which a person or house is known in official or business relations; as, the name and style of Baring Brothers. The term denomination is applied to a separate religious organization, without the opprobrious meaning attaching to the word "sect;" also, to designate any class of like objects collectively, especially money or notes of a certain value; as, the sum was in notes of the denomination of one thousand dollars. Compare TERM.
agnomen, appellation, cognomen, denomination, designation, epithet, name, style, surname, title