Synonyms containing amplifiers, electronic

We've found 3,784 synonyms:

Phase margin

Phase margin

In electronic amplifiers, the phase margin (PM) is the difference between the phase and 180°, for an amplifier's output signal (relative to its input) at zero dB gain. P M = 180 ∘ − | Δ ϕ | {\displaystyle \mathrm {PM} =180^{\circ }-|\Delta \phi |} .Typically the open-loop phase lag (relative to input) varies with frequency, progressively increasing to exceed 180°, at which frequency the output signal becomes inverted, or antiphase in relation to the input. The PM will be positive but decreasing at frequencies less than the frequency at which inversion sets in (at which PM = 0), and PM is negative (PM < 0) at higher frequencies. In the presence of negative feedback, a zero or negative PM at a frequency where the loop gain exceeds unity (1) guarantees instability. Thus positive PM is a "safety margin" that ensures proper (non-oscillatory) operation of the circuit. This applies to amplifier circuits as well as more generally, to active filters, under various load conditions (e.g. reactive loads). In its simplest form, involving ideal negative feedback voltage amplifiers with non-reactive feedback, the phase margin is measured at the frequency where the open-loop voltage gain of the amplifier equals the desired closed-loop DC voltage gain.More generally, PM is defined as that of the amplifier and its feedback network combined (the "loop", normally opened at the amplifier input), measured at a frequency where the loop gain is unity, and prior to the closing of the loop, through tying the output of the open loop to the input source, in such a way as to subtract from it. In the above loop-gain definition, it is assumed that the amplifier input presents zero load. To make this work for non-zero-load input, the output of the feedback network needs to be loaded with an equivalent load for the purpose of determining the frequency response of the loop gain. It is also assumed that the graph of gain vs. frequency crosses unity gain with a negative slope and does so only once. This consideration matters only with reactive and active feedback networks, as may be the case with active filters. Phase margin and its important companion concept, gain margin, are measures of stability in closed-loop, dynamic-control systems. Phase margin indicates relative stability, the tendency to oscillate during its damped response to an input change such as a step function. Gain margin indicates absolute stability and the degree to which the system will oscillate, without limit, given any disturbance. The output signals of all amplifiers exhibit a time delay when compared to their input signals. This delay causes a phase difference between the amplifier's input and output signals. If there are enough stages in the amplifier, at some frequency, the output signal will lag behind the input signal by one cycle period at that frequency. In this situation, the amplifier's output signal will be in phase with its input signal though lagging behind it by 360°, i.e., the output will have a phase angle of −360°. This lag is of great consequence in amplifiers that use feedback. The reason: the amplifier will oscillate if the fed-back output signal is in phase with the input signal at the frequency at which its open-loop voltage gain equals its closed-loop voltage gain and the open-loop voltage gain is one or greater. The oscillation will occur because the fed-back output signal will then reinforce the input signal at that frequency. In conventional operational amplifiers, the critical output phase angle is −180° because the output is fed back to the input through an inverting input which adds an additional −180°. In practice, feedback amplifiers must be designed with phase margins substantially in excess of 0°, even though amplifiers with phase margins of, say, 1° are theoretically stable. The reason is that many practical factors can reduce the phase margin below the theoretical minimum. A prime example is when the amplifier's output is connected to a capacitive load. Therefore, operational amplifiers are usually compensated to achieve a minimum phase margin of 45° or so. This means that at the frequency at which the open and closed loop gains meet, the phase angle is −135°. The calculation is: -135° - (-180°) = 45°. See Warwick or Stout for a detailed analysis of the techniques and results of compensation to ensure adequate phase margins. See also the article "Pole splitting". Often amplifiers are designed to achieve a typical phase margin of 60 degrees. If the typical phase margin is around 60 degrees then the minimum phase margin will typically be greater than 45 degrees. A phase margin of 60 degrees is also a magic number because it allows for the fastest settling time when attempting to follow a voltage step input (a Butterworth design). An amplifier with lower phase margin will ring for longer and an amplifier with more phase margin will take a longer time to rise to the voltage step's final level. A r

— Wikipedia

Electronic music

Electronic music

Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means (electroacoustic music), and that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, hammers, and so on, and electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar, which are typically made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin, synthesizer, and computer can produce electronic sounds.The first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, and shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical. During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and then modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced solely from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was also created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s (although algorithmic composition per se without a computer had occurred much earlier, for example Mozart's Musikalisches Würfelspiel). In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, and Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music. In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, and turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, krautrock, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, and the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, and a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.

— Wikipedia

Predistortion

Predistortion

Predistortion is a technique used to improve the linearity of radio transmitter amplifiers. Radio transmitter amplifiers in most telecommunications systems are required to be "linear", in that they must accurately reproduce the signal present at their input. An amplifier that compresses its input or has a non-linear input/output relationship causes the output signal to splatter onto adjacent radio frequencies. This causes interference on other radio channels. There are many different ways of specifying the linearity of a power amplifier, including P1dB, Inter-modulation Distortion (IMD), AM-to-PM, spectral regrowth and Noise Power Ratio (NPR). For a truly linear system, these measures are in a sense all equivalent. That is, a power amplifier with low inter-modulation distortion will also have low spectral regrowth and low AM-to-PM distortion. Likewise there are two equivalent ways of conceptualizing how predistortion amplifiers work: correcting gain and phase distortions, or cancelling inter-modulation products. Usually one of the two conceptualizations is preferred when designing predistortion circuitry; however the end result is generally the same. A predistorter designed to correct gain and phase non-linearities will also improve IMD, while one which targets inter-modulation products will also reduce gain and phase perturbations. When combined with the target amplifier, the linearizer produces an overall system that is more linear and reduces the amplifier's distortion. In essence, "inverse distortion" is introduced into the input of the amplifier, thereby cancelling any non-linearity the amplifier might have. Predistortion is a cost-saving and power efficiency technique. Radio power amplifiers tend to become more non-linear as their output power increases towards their maximum rated output. Predistortion is a way to get more usable power from the amplifier, without having to build a larger, less efficient and more expensive amplifier. Another important consideration in design of RF power amplifiers is the memory effect or amplifier nonlinear dynamics.Predistortion can be implemented in an analog as well as digital manner known as digital pre-distortion.

— Wikipedia

Ampeg

Ampeg

Ampeg is a manufacturer best known for its bass amplifiers. Originally established in 1946 in Linden, New Jersey by Everitt Hull and Stanley Michaels as "Michaels-Hull Electronic Labs," today Ampeg is part of the Yamaha Guitar Group. Although specializing in the production of bass amplifiers, Ampeg has previously manufactured guitar amplifiers and pickups and instruments including double basses, bass guitars, and electric guitars.

— Wikipedia

Dynaquad

Dynaquad

Dynaquad, or DY, was a matrix decoder 4-channel quadraphonic sound system developed by Dynaco in 1969. The system originally had four speakers that were arranged in a diamond shape (centre-front, centre-left, centre-rear, centre-right). Originally (first available in 1969 with th Dynaco SCA-80Q amplifier ), it was used as a derived four channel "decoding" system, where the back channels played ambient sounds recovered from standard stereo sounds. It is based on the Hafler circuit, along with the Electrovoice Stereo-4 system. As such it wasn't used initially used as an encoding method. Four channel record pioneers Vanguard Records started to use it as an encoding/decoding matrix in 1971. The encoding was unusual in that, like the Stereo-4 system, it did not use 90° phase shifters. There were few albums released in the format. A much simpler form of the Dynaco patent keeps the four speakers in their normal left and right plus front and rear positions. The left and right rear speakers are connected to the two-channel stereo amplifier via a passive matrix circuit, while the front ones stay directly connected to the amplifier. A lot of stereo material, recorded with a central, non-directional microphone (kidney pattern) placed in front of the orchestra, possessed suitable phase difference stereo signals. When taken from this passive speaker matrix for the rear channels, they produced a quasi-quadraphonic effect at low cost (the patent specifies the use of one fixed 10 ohm resistor and three variable 20 ohm resistors in a star arrangement). Especially for classical music, a fine impression of concert-hall ambiance is achieved with such a system.Dynaco sold this matrix circuit (Dynaco QD-1 Quadaptor, introduced in 1971)with a large and triple high-wattage potentiometer inside. Electronic amateurs could build the circuit much more cheaply – e.g., with a four-position switch (four steps in level of the rear sound from min. to max. level) using fixed resistors of, for example, 20, 10, 5 and 0 (short-circuit) ohms. Because, in practice, only the highest level was of any use, a more basic set-up with only the fixed 10 ohm resistor at close-to-zero cost is possible. The system requires relatively flat impedance curves for the rear speakers to work properly, which was often the case in the tube-amplifier days. Tube amplifiers had a constant impedance over a wide range, and worked best with high-efficiency speakers. Later on, when transistor amplifiers were used, speakers tended to lose that design feature. (Lower impedance meant higher power output for these amplifiers, compensating for the lower efficiency of such designs.) The system worked best using a transistor-based stereo amplifier, low-efficiency front speakers, and high-efficiency, constant impedance rear speakers.

— Wikipedia

tape deck

tape deck

electronic equipment for making or playing magnetic tapes (but without amplifiers or speakers); a component in an audio system

— Princeton's WordNet

Gain

Gain

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a circuit to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output, by adding energy to the signal converted from some power supply. It is usually defined as the mean ratio of the signal output of a system to the signal input of the same system. It may also be defined on a logarithmic scale, in terms of the decimal logarithm of the same ratio. A gain greater than one, that is, amplification, is the defining property of an active component or circuit, while a passive circuit will have a gain of less than one. Thus, the term gain on its own is ambiguous. For example, "a gain of five" may imply that either the voltage, current or the power is increased by a factor of five, although most often this will mean a voltage gain of five for audio and general purpose amplifiers, especially operational amplifiers, but a power gain for radio frequency amplifiers. Furthermore, the term gain is also applied in systems such as sensors where the input and output have different units; in such cases the gain units must be specified, as in "5 microvolts per photon" for the responsivity of a photosensor. The "gain" of a bipolar transistor normally refers to forward current transfer ratio, either hFE, or sometimes hfe.

— Freebase

human microphone

human microphone

A means of delivering a speech to a large crowd, where the speaker says a few words at a time, and people within hearing of the speaker repeat it in unison. Used to work around police bans of electronic amplifiers.

— Wiktionary

peoples microphone

peoples microphone

A means of delivering a speech to a large crowd, where the speaker says a few words at a time, and people within hearing of the speaker repeat it in unison. Used to work around police bans of electronic amplifiers.

— Wiktionary

Authentidate Holding

Authentidate Holding

Authentidate Holding Corp. provides software and web-based services that enable enterprises and individuals to conduct the exchange of electronic content. The company provides software applications and web-based services that address various business needs for customers. Its offerings are primarily targeted at enterprises and office professionals and incorporate security technologies, such as rules based electronic forms, intelligent routing and transaction management, electronic signing, content authentication, identity credentialing and verification and web and fax-based communication capabilities to electronically facilitate workflows. Authentidate operates its business in the United States and Germany. In the United States the company engages in the development and sale of web-based services based on its Inscrybe platform and related capabilities. In the United States, the company offers its patent pending content authentication technology in the form of the United States Postal Service Electronic Postmark (EPM). In Germany the company engages in the development and sale of software applications that provide electronic signature and time stamping capabilities for various corporate processes, including electronic billing and archiving solutions. Products and Services The company™s business in the U.S. provides hosted services that enable customers to conduct the exchange of electronic content. Its Inscrybe Healthcare service is targeted at the medical supply and home healthcare sectors. The company™s new Inscrybe Office service is targeted primarily at enterprises and office professionals in various document markets. Its offerings include: Inscrybe Healthcare: It is a web-based information network that enables users to exchange time-sensitive information through the web or fax. Inscrybe Healthcare incorporates electronic signatures, content authentication using the USPS EPM, workflow intelligence and HIPAA compliance. It is used to track and manage all kinds of structured and unstructured data and can be interfaced with existing in-house and external systems. Inscrybe Healthcare includes the following workflow automation modules: eReferral"automates the entire order placement and tracking process between the physician office and the homecare provider; eCMN"provides an automated process for certificates of medical necessity, written orders and other documentation required by home medical equipment suppliers to support reimbursement of equipment and service claims; ePOC"enables online processing of plan of care forms between home health agencies, skilled care providers and physicians to facilitate patient care and reimbursement; eCA"provides an electronic submission and tracking process for claims attachments required for proper processing of healthcare claims; ePA"automates the processing management of prior authorizations, prior approvals and treatment authorization requests required by state Medicad programs and certain healthcare plans; MDKeyBank"provides a technically compliant physicians credentialing tool that allows for the electronic signing of electronic medical forms online; and Inscrybe Healthcare Discharge"defines workflows for patient discharge referrals, eligibility, verification and acceptances. Inscrybe Office: It is a web-based service, for business or personal use, to sign, seal and confirm receipt of important documents over the web. The service supports multiple electronic signatures on the same document, provides optional features such as acknowledgment of receipt, verification of recipient identity, content authentication using the USPS EPM and audit trails. Inscrybe Office can be used for legally binding or compliance-dependent transactions such as business or personal contracts, agreements, closing documents, transcripts, offer letters, prescriptions, authorizations and other important documents. USPS EPM Service: It enables a user to have a digital record of a transaction created and stor

— CrunchBase

Operational amplifier

Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an op-amp produces an output potential that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where they were used to do mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. Characteristics of a circuit using an op-amp are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes or manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself, which makes op-amps popular building blocks for circuit design. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities. Op-amps may be packaged as components, or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits.

— Freebase

Electronic paper

Electronic paper

Electronic paper, e-paper and electronic ink are display technologies which are designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional backlit flat panel displays which emit light, electronic paper displays reflect light like ordinary paper, theoretically making it more comfortable to read, and giving the surface a wider viewing angle compared to conventional displays. The contrast ratio in available displays as of 2008 might be described as similar to that of newspaper, though newly developed displays are slightly better. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing to fade. Many electronic paper technologies can hold static text and images indefinitely without using electricity. Flexible electronic paper uses plastic substrates and plastic electronics for the display backplane. There is ongoing competition among manufacturers to provide full-color ability. Applications of electronic visual displays include electronic pricing labels in retail shops, and digital signage, time tables at bus stations, electronic billboards, mobile phone displays, and e-readers able to display digital versions of books and e-paper magazines.

— Freebase

Electronic musical instrument

Electronic musical instrument

An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical audio signal that ultimately drives a loudspeaker. An electronic instrument may include a user interface for controlling its sound, often by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. However, it is increasingly common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller and a music synthesizer, respectively, with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control. All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects; the border between sound effects and actual musical instruments is often hazy. French composer and engineer Edgard Varèse created a variety of compositions using electronic horns, whistles, and tape. Most notably, he wrote Poème Électronique for the Phillips pavilion at the Brussels World Fair in 1958. Electronic musical instruments are now widely used in most styles of music. Development of new electronic musical instruments, controllers, and synthesizers continues to be a highly active and interdisciplinary field of research. Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New interfaces for musical expression, have organized to report cutting edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments, controllers, and synthesizers.

— Freebase

Electronic document

Electronic document

An electronic document is any electronic media content that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output. Originally, any computer data were considered as something internal — the final data output was always on paper. However, the development of computer networks has made it so that in most cases it is much more convenient to distribute electronic documents than printed ones. And the improvements in electronic display technologies mean that in most cases it is possible to view documents on screen instead of printing them. However, using electronic documents for final presentation instead of paper has created the problem of multiple incompatible file formats. Even plain text computer files are not free from this problem — e.g. under MS-DOS, most programs could not work correctly with UNIX-style text files, and for non-English speakers, the different code pages always have been a source of trouble. Even more problems are connected with complex file formats of various word processors, spreadsheets and graphics software. To alleviate the problem, many software companies distribute free file viewers for their proprietary file formats. The other solution is the development of standardized non-proprietary file formats, and electronic documents for specialized uses have specialized formats–the specialized electronic articles in physics use TeX or PostScript.

— Freebase

Electronic component

Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components. Electronic components have two or more electrical terminals aside from antennas which may only have one terminal. These leads connect, usually soldered to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, or thick film devices. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right.

— Freebase

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An antonym for "ignominious"
  • A. honorable
  • B. inglorious
  • C. opprobrious
  • D. smuggled