Synonyms containing body of jurors

We've found 15,742 synonyms:

Peremptory challenge

Peremptory challenge

Peremptory challenge usually refers to a right in jury selection for the defense and prosecution to reject a certain number of potential jurors who appear to have an unfavorable bias without having to give any reason. Other potential jurors may be challenged for cause: i.e. by giving a reason why they might be unable to reach a fair verdict, but the challenge will be considered by the presiding judge and may be denied. The idea behind peremptory challenges is that if both parties have contributed in the configuration of the jury, they will find its verdict more acceptable. The existence of peremptory challenges is argued to be an important safeguard in the judicial process, allowing both the defendant and the prosecution to get rid of potentially biased jurors. Their use allows attorneys to use their training and experience to dismiss jurors who might say the correct thing, but might otherwise harbor prejudices that could infringe the rights of the defendant to a fair trial. The use of peremptory challenges is controversial as some feel it has been used to undermine the balanced representation on a jury which would occur using random selection. Despite this, it still remains in use in several jurisdictions and in some cases leads to extensive and expensive jury research, aimed at producing a favorable jury.

— Freebase

Body worship

Body worship

Body worship is any practice of physically revering a part of another person's body, and is usually done as a submissive act in the context of BDSM. Typical kinds of body worship include worship of muscles, the penis, the vagina, or the buttocks. Usually accompanied by prostration, re-enforcing a sense of inferiority, a "sub" generally licks, kisses and sucks their dominant's body part, and is not allowed to touch it in a more conventional way. This brings an aspect of erotic humiliation to the submissive partner. Worshipping a body can also be done because the worshipper is in awe of the body part and wishes to praise that beauty. Although encouragement may be provided, verbally or by spanking, body worship is typically received more or less passively, the worshipped party aloof. Facesitting and smothering are forms of body worship which differ chiefly because of their aggressive approach. Same sex, male-on-male body worship can arise in a non-heterosexual, non-BDSM context as a form of either a gay or a men who have sex with men erotic encounter or sexual play scene, for example in a gay bathhouse. This does not involve humiliation or domination per se, though the worshipped recipient is passive rather than dominating. A man who has a high body mass index could be an admirer of and be fascinated by the bodies of males who are lean and toned or buff (thus a low body mass index ‘hard body’) in contrast to the admirer’s own flabby, obese physique. The admired male could be of a younger age and exhibit the characteristics of a gay fetish body type known as a twink (gay slang) wherein his skin is largely free of hair or ‘smooth’, including being free of any pubic, anal and armpit hair which is characteristic of young boys who have not yet reached the stage of puberty when they exhibit and manifest such hair growth and as secondary sex characteristics. Typically the admiring man will gently manually caress, pet, rub, massage and lick the toned, smooth skinned body, especially parts like the abdomen and buttocks; commonly the nipples and penis of the person whose body is being so worshipped will be fondled, manually stimulated and aroused and then licked and orally massaged (fellated) by the admiring participant; as well, the anus might be licked and or fingered as part of the ritual touching. Such ministrations can also take place as part of cuddling and spooning positions while both participants are laying down together. Body worship is a common theme in the work of Japanese fetish artist Namio Harukawa.

— Wikipedia

impanel

impanel

To enrol (jurors), e.g. from a jury pool; to register (the names of jurors) on a "panel" or official list.

— Wiktionary

Body bag

Body bag

A body bag is a non-porous bag designed to contain a human body, used for the storage and transportation of corpses. Body bags can also be used for the storage of corpses within morgues. Before purpose-made body bags were available, cotton mattress covers were sometimes used, particularly in combat zones during the Second World War. However, the subsequent rubber body-bag designs are much superior, not least because they prevent leakage of body fluids, which often occurs after someone dies. The dimensions of a body-bag are generally around 36 inches by 90 inches. In modern warfare, body bags have been used to contain the bodies of dead soldiers. Disaster agencies typically have reserves of body bags, both for anticipated wars and natural disasters. During the Cold War, vast reserves of body bags were built up in anticipation of millions of fatalities from nuclear war. This was the subject of Adrian Mitchell's protest poem "Fifteen Million Plastic Bags". Body bags are sometimes portrayed in films and television as being made of a heavy black plastic. Lightweight white body bags have since become popular because it is much easier to spot a piece of evidence that may have been jostled from the body in transit on a white background than on a black background. Even so black body-bags are still in general use. Other typical colors include orange, blue, or gray. Regardless of their color, body bags are made of thick plastic and have a full-length zipper on them. Sometimes the zipper runs straight down the middle. Alternatively, the path of the zipper may be J-shaped or D-shaped. Depending on the design, there are sometimes handles to facilitate lifting. It is possible to write information on the plastic surface of a bodybag using a marker pen, and this often happens—either in situ or at the mortuary, before being stored in refrigerated cabinets. Alternatively, some designs of body bags have transparent label pockets as an integral part of the design, into which a name-card can be inserted. In any case, a conventional toe tag can easily be tied to one of the lifting handles if required. Body bags are not designed to be washed and re-used, with good reason: aside from the obvious hygiene concerns, re-use of body bags could easily contaminate evidence in the case of a suspicious death. As a result, body bags are routinely discarded and incinerated after one use.

— Freebase

Body schema

Body schema

Body schema is a concept used in several disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, sports medicine, and robotics. The neurologist Sir Henry Head originally defined it as a postural model of the body that actively organizes and modifies 'the impressions produced by incoming sensory impulses in such a way that the final sensation of [body] position, or of locality, rises into consciousness charged with a relation to something that has happened before'. As a postural model that keeps track of limb position, it plays an important role in control of action. It involves aspects of both central (brain processes) and peripheral (sensory, proprioceptive) systems. Thus, a body schema can be considered the collection of processes that registers the posture of one's body parts in space. The schema is updated during body movement. This is typically a non-conscious process, and is used primarily for spatial organization of action. It is therefore a pragmatic representation of the body’s spatial properties, which includes the length of limbs and limb segments, their arrangement, the configuration of the segments in space, and the shape of the body surface. Body schema also plays an important role in the integration and use of tools by humans.A clear differentiation of body schema from body image has developed gradually.

— Wikipedia

Kinaesthetics

Kinaesthetics

Kinaesthetics (or kinesthetics, in American English) is the study of body motion, and of the perception (both conscious and unconscious) of one's own body motions. Kinesthesis is the learning of movements that an individual commonly performs. The individual must repeat the motions that they are trying to learn and perfect many times for this to happen. Many people say that kinesthesis is muscle memory but it is not true because your muscles can’t actually remember anything, it is the proprioceptors giving the information from your muscles to your brain. To do this, the individual must have a sense of the position of their body and how that changes throughout the motor skill they are trying to perform. While performing the motion the body will use receptors in the muscles to transfer information to the brain to tell the brain about what the body is doing. Then after completing the same motor skill numerous times, the brain will begin to remember the motion based on the position of the body at a given time. Then after learning the motion the body will be able perform the motor skill even when usual senses are inhibited, such as the person closing their eyes. The body will perform the motion based on the information that is stored in the brain from previous attempts at the same movement. This is possible because the brain has formed connections between the location of body parts in space (the body uses perception to learn where their body is in space) and the subsequent movements that commonly follow these positions. It becomes almost an instinct. The person does not need to even think about what they are doing to perfect the skill, they have done it so many times that it feels natural and requires little to no thought. When the kinesthetic system has learned a motor skill proficiently, it will be able to work even when ones vision is limited. The perception of continuous movement (kinesthesia) is largely unconscious. A conscious proprioception is achieved through increased awareness. Kinaesthetics involves the teaching and personal development of such awareness.

— Wikipedia

Embracery

Embracery

Embracery is the attempt to influence a juror corruptly to give his verdict in favour of one side or the other in a trial, by promise, persuasions, entreaties, money, entertainments and the like. In English law, it was an offence both at common law and by statute, punishable by fine and imprisonment. As a statutory offence it dates back to 1360. The offence is complete, whether any verdict has been given or not, and whether the verdict is in accordance with the weight of evidence or otherwise. The person making the attempt, and any juryman who consents, are equally punishable. The legal term "embracery" comes from the Old Fr. embraseour, an embracer, i.e., one who excites or instigates, literally one who sets on fire, from embraser, to kindle a fire. This is unrelated to the common word "embrace", i.e., to hold or clasp in the arms, which is from French embracer, from Latin bracchia, arms. The false verdict of a jury, whether occasioned by embracery or otherwise, was formerly considered criminal, and jurors were severely punished, being proceeded against by writ of attaint. The Juries Act 1825, in abolishing writs of attaint, made a special exemption as regards jurors guilty of embracery. Prosecution for the offence has been so extremely rare that when a case occurred in 1891 it was stated that no precedent could be found for the indictment. The defendant was fined £200, afterwards reduced to £100.

— Freebase

Court of Assize

Court of Assize

The Court of Assize, in Belgium is very similar to the French court of the same name. It has jurisdiction over all felonies that haven't been correctionalised, over political offences and press-related offences, except those inspired by racism or xenophobia, and over crimes of international law, such as genocide and crime against humanity. These courts sit in each of the ten provinces and in the Brussels capital territory. Unlike the other courts, which have a permanent structure, a Court of Assize has to be constituted for each specific case. It comprises three professional judges and 12 jurors. The presiding judge is to be a judge at a Court of Appeal and is assisted by two judges of Courts of First Instance. The jury invariably consists of twelve members, who are balloted out of the citizens having the right to vote at elections and ageing between thirty and sixty, and they must be able to read and write. In addition, it is possible to call up one to twelve alternate jurors. Only the jury decides upon the facts, and with the judges the penalty is determined. There is no appeal for the verdicts, apart from one before the Court of Cassation.

— Freebase

Struck jury

Struck jury

A struck jury is a multi-step process of selecting a jury from a pool. First potential jurors are eliminated for hardship. Second jurors are eliminated for cause by conducting voir dire until there is a pool available that is exactly the size of the final jury plus the number of peremptory challenges available to each side. Then the two sides exercise their peremptory challenges on the remaining pool, usually alternating. This procedure "has its roots in ancient common law heritage". Commentators have offered the following advantages of a struck jury over a "strike and replace" jury: ⁕It is capable of producing a less biased jury than the alternative; ⁕There is no reason to hold back on use of peremptories, because lawyers have full knowledge of who will remain on the panel; ⁕Remedying an alleged Batson violation is easier, since court and counsel can view all the strikes and a ruling can be made before any juror is excused.

— Freebase

Death-qualified jury

Death-qualified jury

A death-qualified jury is a jury in a criminal law case in the United States in which the death penalty is a prospective sentence. Such a jury will be composed of jurors who: ⁕Are not categorically opposed to the imposition of capital punishment; ⁕Are not of the belief that the death penalty must be imposed in all instances of capital murder—that is, they would consider life imprisonment as a possible penalty. The creation of such a jury requires the striking during voir dire of jurors who express opposition to the death penalty such that they are unable or unwilling to set aside personal, moral, or emotional objections toward the supporting of a death sentence, and is designed to produce a fair and impartial jury of which the members will fairly consider all options, including the death penalty and life imprisonment. Expressing opposition to the death penalty does not automatically disqualify a juror. A party may attempt to rehabilitate the juror by asking questions as to whether, personal convictions notwithstanding, he might consider the death penalty. A juror who expresses exorbitant support for the death penalty who would thus otherwise be struck may be rehabilitated should he state that he is willing openly to consider life imprisonment.

— Freebase

Court clerk

Court clerk

A court clerk is an officer of the court whose responsibilities include maintaining the records of a court. Another duty is to administer oaths to witnesses, jurors, and grand jurors. The clerk also was the custodian of the court's seal, which is used to authenticate copies of the court's orders, judgments and other records. In common law jurisdictions, the existence of the office of a clerk is one of the typical criteria distinguishing a court of record. The clerk may be more precisely titled after the court, e.g. clerk of the peace attending to a justice of the peace, clerk of the police court, etc. On Guernsey, the medieval French term greffe is used. In courts without a clerk, or if there is no specific officer otherwise available, the judge may have authority to act as clerk of the court, as sometimes in a short-staffed probate court.

— Freebase

Body art

Body art

Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body. The most common forms of body art are tattoos and body piercings. Other types include scarification, branding, subdermal implants, scalpelling, shaping, full body tattoo and body painting. Body art is also a sub-category of performance art, in which artists use or abuse their own body to make their particular statements. More extreme body art can involve mutilation or pushing the body to its physical limits. In more recent times, the body has become a subject of much broader discussion and treatment than can be reduced to body art in its common understanding. Important strategies that question the human body are: implants, body in symbiosis with the new technologies, virtual bodies, among others.

— Freebase

Body fat percentage

Body fat percentage

The body fat percentage of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat. Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than that for men, due to the demands of childbearing and other hormonal functions. The percentage of essential fat is 3–5% in men, and 8–12% in women. Storage body fat consists of fat accumulation in adipose tissue, part of which protects internal organs in the chest and abdomen. The minimum recommended total body fat percentage exceeds the essential fat percentage value reported above. A number of methods are available for determining body fat percentage, such as measurement with calipers or through the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis. The body fat percentage is a measure of fitness level, since it is the only body measurement which directly calculates a person's relative body composition without regard to height or weight. The widely used body mass index provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights.

— Freebase

indent style

indent style

[C, C++, and Java programmers] The rules one uses to indent code in a readable fashion. There are four major C indent styles, described below; all have the aim of making it easier for the reader to visually track the scope of control constructs. They have been inherited by C++ and Java, which have C-like syntaxes. The significant variable is the placement of { and } with respect to the statement(s) they enclose and to the guard or controlling statement (if, else, for, while, or do) on the block, if any.K&R style — Named after Kernighan & Ritchie, because the examples in K&R are formatted this way. Also called kernel style because the Unix kernel is written in it, and the ‘One True Brace Style’ (abbrev. 1TBS) by its partisans. In C code, the body is typically indented by eight spaces (or one tab) per level, as shown here. Four spaces are occasionally seen in C, but in C++ and Java four tends to be the rule rather than the exception. if (<cond>) {         <body> } Allman style — Named for Eric Allman, a Berkeley hacker who wrote a lot of the BSD utilities in it (it is sometimes called BSD style). Resembles normal indent style in Pascal and Algol. It is the only style other than K&R in widespread use among Java programmers. Basic indent per level shown here is eight spaces, but four (or sometimes three) spaces are generally preferred by C++ and Java programmers. if (<cond>) {         <body> } Whitesmiths style — popularized by the examples that came with Whitesmiths C, an early commercial C compiler. Basic indent per level shown here is eight spaces, but four spaces are occasionally seen. if (<cond>)         {         <body>         } GNU style — Used throughout GNU EMACS and the Free Software Foundation code, and just about nowhere else. Indents are always four spaces per level, with { and } halfway between the outer and inner indent levels. if (<cond>)   {     <body>   } Surveys have shown the Allman and Whitesmiths styles to be the most common, with about equal mind shares. K&R/1TBS used to be nearly universal, but is now much less common in C (the opening brace tends to get lost against the right paren of the guard part in an if or while, which is a Bad Thing). Defenders of 1TBS argue that any putative gain in readability is less important than their style's relative economy with vertical space, which enables one to see more code on one's screen at once. The Java Language Specification legislates not only the capitalization of identifiers, but where nouns, adjectives, and verbs should be in method, class, interface, and variable names (section 6.8). While the specification stops short of also standardizing on a bracing style, all source code originating from Sun Laboratories uses the K&R style. This has set a precedent for Java programmers, which most follow.Doubtless these issues will continue to be the subject of holy w

— The New Hacker's Dictionary

Body language

Body language

Body language is a type of a nonverbal communication in which physical behaviors, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey the information. Such behavior includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space. Body language exists in both animals and humans, but this article focuses on interpretations of human body language. It is also known as kinesics. Although body language is an important part of communication, most of it happens without conscious awareness. For instance, when your blind date arrives, you may begin to tap your foot nervously without realizing it. Fortunately, by learning more on this topic we can become skilled at understanding other people's posture. Body language must not be confused with sign language, as sign languages are full languages like spoken languages and have their own complex grammar systems, as well as being able to exhibit the fundamental properties that exist in all languages. Body language, on the other hand, does not have a grammar system and must be interpreted broadly, instead of having an absolute meaning corresponding with a certain movement, so it is not a language like sign language, and is simply termed as a "language" due to popular culture. In a society, there are agreed-upon interpretations of particular behavior. Interpretations may vary from country to country, or culture to culture. On this note, there is controversy on whether body language is universal. Body language, a subset of nonverbal communication, complements verbal communication in social interaction. In fact some researchers conclude that nonverbal communication accounts for the majority of information transmitted during interpersonal interactions. It helps to establish the relationship between two people and regulates interaction, but can be ambiguous.

— Wikipedia

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Quiz

Are you a human thesaurus?

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Which of the following words is not a synonym of the others?
  • A. opposer
  • B. protagonist
  • C. adversary
  • D. opponent