Synonyms containing camera recorder
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A camera operator or cameraman/camerawoman is a professional operator of a film or video camera. In filmmaking, the leading camera operator is usually called a cinematographer, while a camera operator in a video production may be known as a television camera operator, video camera operator, or videographer, depending on the context and technology involved, usually operating a professional video camera. The camera operator is responsible for physically operating the camera and maintaining composition and camera angles throughout a given scene or shot. In narrative filmmaking, the camera operator will collaborate with the director, director of photography, actors and crew to make technical and creative decisions. In this setting, a camera operator is part of a film crew consisting of the director of photography and one or more camera assistants. In documentary filmmaking and news, the camera is often called on to film unfolding, unscripted events. In 2006, there were approximately 27,000 television, video, and motion picture camera operators employed in the United States. Important camera operator skills include choreographing and framing shots knowledge of and the ability to select appropriate camera lenses, and other equipment to portray dramatic scenes. The principles of dramatic story telling and film editing fundamentals are important skills as well. The camera operator is required to communicate clearly and concisely on sets where time and film budget constraints are ever present.
A dashcam, dashboard camera, car DVR, driving recorder, or event data recorder (EDR) is an onboard camera that continuously records the view through a vehicle's front windscreen and sometimes rear or other windows. Some dashcams include a camera to record the interior of the car in 360 degrees inside camera, usually in a ball form and can automatically send pictures and video using 4G. EDRs and some dashcams also record acceleration/deceleration g-force, speed, steering angle, GPS data, etc. A wide-angle 130, 170° or more front camera may be attached to the interior windscreen, to the rear-view mirror (clip on), or to the top of the dashboard, by suction cup or adhesive-tape mount. A rear camera is usually mounted in the rear window or in the registration plate, with a RCA Video output to the display monitor/screen. The resolution will determine the overall quality of the video. Full HD or 1080p (1920×1080) is standard for Dash HD cams. Dash cameras may have 1080p, 1296p, 1440p, or higher definition for a front camera and 720p for a back camera and include f/1.8 aperture and night vision mode. Dashcams can provide video evidence in the event of a road accident. When parked, dashcams can capture video and picture evidence if vandalism is detected 360° parking monitor and send it to the owner usually employing 4G.
In cinematography, the dolly grip is a dedicated technician trained to operate the camera dolly. This technician places, levels, and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly and usually a camera operator and camera assistant as riders. If the dolly has a moveable vertical axis, such as a hydraulic arm, then the dolly grip also operates the "boom". If both axes are used simultaneously, this type of dolly shot is known as a compound move. A dolly grip must work closely with the camera crew to perfect these complex movements during rehearsals. Focusing the lens is critical to capturing a sharp image, so a dolly grip must hit his/her marks in concert with a camera assistant who pulls focus. It is a skill that experience can hone to a point, but the best dolly grips are known for their "touch," and that makes them highly sought-after talents. Despite this expertise, these key members of the filmmaking community have on occasion been dubbed with the derogatory term, "dolly jockey". A dolly grip is also employed when the camera is operated in handheld mode. While the camera operator is moving with the camera, the dolly grip is responsible for the operator's safety, helping them to "blindly" negotiate their way through sometimes complicated environments. The dolly grip silently directs the operator away from walls and other obstacles that the operator cannot see while concentrating on the image in the camera viewfinder. The same is true when the camera is operated with a Steadicam or similar body-mounted stabilization tool.
A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture still photographs. Since early in the 21st century the majority of mobile phones in use are camera phones. Most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras. Their usual fixed focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting. Lacking a physical shutter, most have a long shutter lag. Flash, where present, is usually weak. Optical zoom and tripod screws are rare. Some also lack a USB connection, removable memory card, or other way of transferring their pictures more quickly than by the phone's inherent communication feature. The first camera phone was sold in 2000 in Japan, a J-Phone model, about a decade after the first digital camera was sold in Japan in December 1989. Some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, which apply most acutely in low light conditions and in any case have not inhibited their widespread use. Most model lines improve in these regards every year or two. Some, such as the Droid Incredible only have a menu choice to start an application program to activate the camera. Others, such as the BlackBerry Storm 2, Droid X, Motorola V980 and Nokia 5800 also have a separate camera button for quickness and convenience. Windows Phones can be configured to operate as a camera even if the phone is asleep. Some camera phones are designed to resemble separate low-end digital compact cameras in appearance and to some extent in features and picture quality, and are branded as both mobile phones and cameras, including certain Sony phones.
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes—whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle. The recorder is end-blown and the mouth of the instrument is constricted by a wooden plug, known as a block or fipple. It is distinguished from other members of the family by having holes for seven fingers and one for the thumb of the uppermost hand. The bore of the recorder is tapered slightly, being widest at the mouthpiece end and narrowest towards the foot on Baroque recorders, or flared almost like a trumpet at the bottom on Renaissance instruments. Recorders can be made out of wood, plastic or ivory. The recorder was popular in medieval times through the baroque era, but declined in the 18th century in favour of orchestral woodwind instruments, such as the flute, oboe, and clarinet. During its heyday, the recorder was traditionally associated with pastoral scenes, miraculous events, funerals, marriages and amorous scenes. Images of recorders can be found in literature and artwork associated with all of these. Purcell, Bach, Telemann and Vivaldi used the recorder to suggest shepherds and imitate birds in their music, a theme that continued in 20th-century music.
|Motion control photography|
Motion control photography
Motion control photography is a technique used in still and motion photography that enables precise control of, and optionally also allows repetition of, camera movements. It can be used to facilitate special effects photography. The process can involve filming several elements using the same camera motion, and then compositing the elements into a single image. Other effects are often used along with motion control, such as chroma key to aid the compositing. Motion control camera rigs are also used in still photography with or without compositing; for example in long exposures of moving vehicles. Today's computer technology allows the programmed camera movement to be processed, such as having the move scaled up or down for different sized elements. Common applications of this process include shooting with miniatures, either to composite several miniatures or to composite miniatures with full-scale elements. The process is also commonly used when duplication of an element which cannot be physically duplicated is required; motion control is the primary method of featuring multiple instances of the same actor in a shot that involves camera movement. For this technique, the camera typically films exactly the same motion in exactly the same location while the actor performs different parts. A blank take (with no actor in the shot) is sometimes also taken to give compositors a reference of what parts of the shot are different in each take. This, in common film-making language, is also known as shooting a "plate". In today's film, the reference take is also useful for digital manipulation of the shots, or for adding digital elements. A simple duplication shot confines each "copy" of an element to one part of the screen. It is far more difficult to composite the shots when the duplicate elements cross paths, though digital technology has made this easier to achieve. Several basic camera tricks are sometimes utilized with this technique, such as having the hand of a body double enter a shot to interact with the actor while the duplicate's arm is to be off-screen. For the sake of compositing, the background elements of the scene must remain identical between takes, requiring anything movable to be locked down; the blank reference take can aid in resolving any discrepancies between the other shots. Similar technology in modern film allows for a camera to record its exact motion during a shot so that the motion can be duplicated by a computer in the creation of computer generated elements for the same shot.
A stereo camera is a type of camera with two or more lenses with a separate image sensor or film frame for each lens. This allows the camera to simulate human binocular vision, and therefore gives it the ability to capture three-dimensional images, a process known as stereo photography. Stereo cameras may be used for making stereoviews and 3D pictures for movies, or for range imaging. The distance between the lenses in a typical stereo camera (the intra-axial distance) is about the distance between one's eyes (known as the intra-ocular distance) and is about 6.35 cm, though a longer base line (greater inter-camera distance) produces more extreme 3-dimensionality. In the 1950s, stereo cameras gained some popularity with the Stereo Realist and similar cameras that employed 135 film to make stereo slides. 3D pictures following the theory behind stereo cameras can also be made more inexpensively by taking two pictures with the same camera, but moving the camera a few inches either left or right. If the image is edited so that each eye sees a different image, then the image will appear to be 3D. This method has problems with objects moving in the different views, though works well with still life. Stereo cameras are sometimes mounted in cars to detect the lane's width and the proximity of an object on the road. Not all two-lens cameras are used for taking stereoscopic photos. A twin-lens reflex camera uses one lens to image to a focusing/composition screen and the other to capture the image on film. These are usually in a vertical configuration. Examples include would be a vintage Rolleiflex or a modern twin lens like a Mamiya C330.
Plaubel is a German camera maker, founded in November, 1902, by Hugo Schrader, who learned the technology of cameras and lenses as an apprentice at Voigtländer in Braunschweig in the late 1800s before being employed by a Frankfurt camera and lens manufacturer and distributor, Dr. R. Krügener, whose daughter he married. Hugo Schrader and his wife elected to open their own business, Plaubel & Co., as distributors and makers of cameras and lenses, naming it after his brother-in-law because he thought Plaubel was easier to remember than Schrader. Its first product catalog was published for Christmas of 1902 and included cameras of all sizes and makes plus many accessories. In 1912 Hugo Schrader introduced the first Plaubel Makina, a compact bellows camera with a unique scissors-struts design. It evolved into a legendary press camera before production was stopped 48 years later. In 1908 the Schraders had a son, Goetz, who was to become the future mainstay of the firm. He entered Plaubel in 1925 as an apprentice and became head of the technical department and in charge of camera development in 1930. A year later he became co-owner with his father. After the death of Hugo Schrader in 1940, Goetz Schrader took over the management of the company. During World War II Plaubel was converted to manufacture precision military gear but was bombed and seriously damaged in 1944. After World War II ended in 1945, Schrader designed and produced a number of large-format Peco monorail studio view cameras. In 1961 Plaubel introduced the advanced Makiflex and Pecoflex, 9x9cm/6x9cm/6x6cm SLR cameras, with focal-plane shutters and revolving backs, and (together with the American firm Burleigh Brooks) the remarkable Veriwide 100, a 6x10cm roll-film viewfinder camera with a fixed ultra-wide lens. In 1975, Schrader sold the company to the Japanese Kimio Doi Group. Plaubel is especially known for their 6x7 Plaubel Makina roll film cameras. In the middle of 1970's, the unique Makina scissors-strut camera was succeeded by a Japanese-built Makina 6x7 with Nikkor lens, first shown in exhibition in 1977 and released in 1978. The wide-angle "sister", Makina W67 came in 1982. Later the type changed to 670, adding modifications like the 220 film capability and a hot shoe. The company still services and repairs these cameras today but stopped production of the Makina 6x7 in 1986. Goetz Schrader died in 1997 but Plaubel continues to produce large format monorail cameras like the Peco Profia for 4×5, 5×7 and 8×10 inch films as well as smaller formats using adaptors. They also make a 6×9 cm/2-14x3-1/4 inch medium-format Peco monorail view camera for digital and roll film photography (PL69D).
A flight recorder is an electronic recording device placed in an aircraft for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of an aircraft accident or incident. For this reason, flight recorders are required to be capable of surviving the conditions likely to be encountered in a severe aircraft accident. They are typically specified to withstand an impact of 3400 g and temperatures of over 1,000 °C. There are two common types of flight recorder, the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder. In some cases, the two recorders may be combined in a single FDR/CVR unit. Since the 1970s most large civil jet transports have been additionally equipped with a "quick access recorder". This records data on a removable storage medium. Access to the FDR and CVR is necessarily difficult because of the requirement that they survive an accident. They also require specialized equipment to read the recording. The QAR recording medium is readily removable and is designed to be read by equipment attached to a standard desktop computer. In many airlines the quick access recordings are scanned for 'events', an event being a significant deviation from normal operational parameters. This allows operational problems to be detected and eliminated before an accident or incident results.
a chamber, or instrument having a chamber. Specifically: The camera obscura when used in photography. See Camera, and Camera obscura
— Webster Dictionary
Arricam is a 35 mm movie camera line manufactured by Arri. It is Arri's flagship sync-sound camera line, replacing the Arriflex 535 line. The design was developed by Fritz Gabriel Bauer and Walter Trauninger, and is heavily derivative of the cameras Bauer created for his Moviecam company, which was bought out by Arri in the mid-1990s. As such, the Arricam is a fusion of the mechanical and intuitive design innovations of the Moviecam and the interchangeable accessories and complex electronic integration of the Arriflex. As of 2006, the Arricam is considered, along with the Panaflex Millennium line, the top sync-sound camera system currently in usage, and is extremely popular amongst bigger budget feature films. The line comprises two camera body models, the ST (Studio) and LT (Lite). The Arricam ST is intended as a full-capability camera, including two camera magazine mounting configurations, whereas the Arricam LT is optimized for smaller, lightweight usage in handheld and Steadicam application, with only the option to mount the magazine in the rear position. Both cameras use motorized displacement magazines, have electronic rotating mirror shutters mounted beneath the film gate (as opposed to beside it, as in Panavision cameras), and contain independently adjustable sprocket pulleys within the camera body.
In the U.S. and Canada, grips are lighting and rigging technicians in the filmmaking and video production industries. They constitute their own department on a film set and are directed by a key grip. Grips have two main functions. The first is to work closely with the camera department to provide camera support, especially if the camera is mounted to a dolly, crane, or in an unusual position, such as the top of a ladder. Some grips may specialize in operating camera dollies or camera cranes. The second main function of grips is to work closely with the electrical department to create lighting set-ups necessary for a shot under the direction of the Director of Photography. In the UK, Australia and most parts of Europe, grips are not involved in lighting. In the "British System", adopted throughout Europe and the British Commonwealth, a grip is solely responsible for camera mounting and support. The term 'grip' dates back to the early era of the circus. From there it was used in vaudeville and then in today's film sound stages and sets. Some have suggested the name comes from the 1930s-40s slang term for a tool bag or "grip" that these technicians use to carry their tools to work. Another popular theory states that in the days of hand-cranked cameras, it would be necessary for a few burly men to hang on to the tripod legs to stop excessive movement of the camera. These men became known as the 'good grips'- as they were constantly being instructed to 'keep a good grip on the tripod'.
In motion picture terminology, the term tracking shot may refer to a shot in which the camera is mounted on a camera dolly, a wheeled platform that is pushed on rails while the picture is being taken; in this case the shot is also known as a dolly shot or trucking shot. One may dolly in on a stationary subject for emphasis, or dolly out, or dolly beside a moving subject. The term tracking shot may also refer to any shot in which the camera follows a subject within the frame, such as a moving actor or a moving vehicle. When using the term tracking shot in this sense, the camera may be moved in ways not involving a camera dolly, such as via a Steadicam, via handheld camera operator, or by being panned on a tripod. The Italian feature film Cabiria, directed by Giovanni Pastrone, was the first popular film to use dolly shots, which in fact were originally called "Cabiria movements" by contemporary filmmakers influenced by the film; however, some smaller American and English films had used the technique prior to Cabiria, as well as Yevgeni Bauer's The Child of the Big City, released a month prior to Cabiria. A popular film using tracking shots was The Avengers when the camera follows each member of the team for a short while during the final battle in New York. Another example of a Steadicam tracking shot can be seen in Stanley Kubrick's The Shining when Danny is moving through the hotel hallways on his three wheeled bike.
In-camera is a legal term that means in private. The same meaning is sometimes expressed in the English equivalent: in chambers. Generally, in-camera describes court cases, parts of it, or process where the public and press are not allowed to observe the procedure or process. In-camera is the opposite of trial in open court where all parties and witnesses testify in a public courtroom, and attorneys publicly present their arguments to the trier of fact. Entire cases may be heard in-camera when, for example, matters of national security are involved. In-camera review by a Judge may be used during otherwise open trials—for example, to protect trade secrets or where one party asserts privilege. This lets the judge review documents in private to determine if revelation of documents in open court will be allowed. In United States courts in-camera review describes a process or procedure where a Judge privately looks at confidential, sensitive, or private information to determine what, if any, information may be used by a party or made public. An in camera review may be at someone's request, or by order of the court.
A form of telegraphic recorder in which the characters, often of the Morse alphabet or some similar one, are inscribed on chemically prepared paper by decomposition affecting the compound with which the paper is charged. In the original chemical recorder of Bain, the instrument was somewhat similar to the Morse recorder, except that the motionless stylus, S, always pressing against the paper was incapable of making any mark, but being of iron, and the paper strip being impregnated with potassium ferrocyanide, on the passage of a current a stain of Prussian blue was produced where the stylus touched the paper. The current passes from the line by way of the iron stylus, through the paper, and by way of a brass surface, M, against which the paper is held and is pressed by the stylus, to the earth. This recorder is extremely simple and has no part to be moved by the current. The solution in which the paper is dipped contains a mixture of potassium ferrocyanide and ammonium nitrate. The object of the latter is to keep the paper moist. In recent recorders a solution of potassium iodide has been used, which gives a brown stain of free iodine, when the current passes. This stain disappears in a few days.
— The Standard Electrical Dictionary