Synonyms containing camera roll
We've found 2,299 synonyms:
A camera operator or cameraman/camerawoman is a professional operator of a film or video camera. In filmmaking, the leading camera operator is usually called a cinematographer, while a camera operator in a video production may be known as a television camera operator, video camera operator, or videographer, depending on the context and technology involved, usually operating a professional video camera. The camera operator is responsible for physically operating the camera and maintaining composition and camera angles throughout a given scene or shot. In narrative filmmaking, the camera operator will collaborate with the director, director of photography, actors and crew to make technical and creative decisions. In this setting, a camera operator is part of a film crew consisting of the director of photography and one or more camera assistants. In documentary filmmaking and news, the camera is often called on to film unfolding, unscripted events. In 2006, there were approximately 27,000 television, video, and motion picture camera operators employed in the United States. Important camera operator skills include choreographing and framing shots knowledge of and the ability to select appropriate camera lenses, and other equipment to portray dramatic scenes. The principles of dramatic story telling and film editing fundamentals are important skills as well. The camera operator is required to communicate clearly and concisely on sets where time and film budget constraints are ever present.
rōl, v.i. to turn like a wheel: to turn on an axis: to be formed into a roll or cylinder: to move, as waves: to be tossed about: to move tumultuously: to be hurled: to rock, or move from side to side: to wallow: to spread under a roller: to sound as a drum beaten rapidly: to move onward.—v.t. to cause to roll: to turn on an axis: to wrap round on itself: to enwrap: to drive forward: to move upon wheels: to press or smooth with rollers: to beat rapidly, as a drum.—n. act of rolling: that which rolls: a revolving cylinder making sheets, plates, &c.: a roller: that which is rolled up—hence parchment, paper, &c. wound into a circular form: a document: a register: a kind of fancy bread: the continued sound of a drum, of thunder, &c.: a swagger or rolling gait.—adj. Roll′-about′, podgy.—ns. Roll′-call, the calling of the roll or list of names, as in the army; Roll′-cū′mūlus, a form of strato-cumulus cloud; Roll′er, that which rolls: a cylinder used for rolling, grinding, &c.: one of a family of Picarian birds: a long, broad bandage: (pl.) long heavy waves; Roll′er-skate, a skate mounted on wheels or rollers for use on asphalt or some other smooth surface.—adj. Roll′ing, modulating: moving on wheels: making a continuous sound.—ns. Roll′ing-mill, a place in which metal is made into sheets, bars, rails, or rods, by working it between pairs of rolls: a machine for rolling metal, &c., into any required form, or for crushing materials between rollers; Roll′ing-pin, a cylindrical piece of wood for rolling dough, paste, &c. to any required thickness; Roll′ing-press, a press of two cylinders for rolling or calendering cloth; Roll′ing-stock, the stock or store of locomotive-engines, carriages, &c. of a railway; Roll′way, an incline: a shoot.—Master of the Rolls, the head of the Record-office. [O. Fr. roler, roeler (Fr. rouler)—Low L. rotulāre—L. rotula, a little wheel—rota, a wheel.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Plaubel is a German camera maker, founded in November, 1902, by Hugo Schrader, who learned the technology of cameras and lenses as an apprentice at Voigtländer in Braunschweig in the late 1800s before being employed by a Frankfurt camera and lens manufacturer and distributor, Dr. R. Krügener, whose daughter he married. Hugo Schrader and his wife elected to open their own business, Plaubel & Co., as distributors and makers of cameras and lenses, naming it after his brother-in-law because he thought Plaubel was easier to remember than Schrader. Its first product catalog was published for Christmas of 1902 and included cameras of all sizes and makes plus many accessories. In 1912 Hugo Schrader introduced the first Plaubel Makina, a compact bellows camera with a unique scissors-struts design. It evolved into a legendary press camera before production was stopped 48 years later. In 1908 the Schraders had a son, Goetz, who was to become the future mainstay of the firm. He entered Plaubel in 1925 as an apprentice and became head of the technical department and in charge of camera development in 1930. A year later he became co-owner with his father. After the death of Hugo Schrader in 1940, Goetz Schrader took over the management of the company. During World War II Plaubel was converted to manufacture precision military gear but was bombed and seriously damaged in 1944. After World War II ended in 1945, Schrader designed and produced a number of large-format Peco monorail studio view cameras. In 1961 Plaubel introduced the advanced Makiflex and Pecoflex, 9x9cm/6x9cm/6x6cm SLR cameras, with focal-plane shutters and revolving backs, and (together with the American firm Burleigh Brooks) the remarkable Veriwide 100, a 6x10cm roll-film viewfinder camera with a fixed ultra-wide lens. In 1975, Schrader sold the company to the Japanese Kimio Doi Group. Plaubel is especially known for their 6x7 Plaubel Makina roll film cameras. In the middle of 1970's, the unique Makina scissors-strut camera was succeeded by a Japanese-built Makina 6x7 with Nikkor lens, first shown in exhibition in 1977 and released in 1978. The wide-angle "sister", Makina W67 came in 1982. Later the type changed to 670, adding modifications like the 220 film capability and a hot shoe. The company still services and repairs these cameras today but stopped production of the Makina 6x7 in 1986. Goetz Schrader died in 1997 but Plaubel continues to produce large format monorail cameras like the Peco Profia for 4×5, 5×7 and 8×10 inch films as well as smaller formats using adaptors. They also make a 6×9 cm/2-14x3-1/4 inch medium-format Peco monorail view camera for digital and roll film photography (PL69D).
In cinematography, the dolly grip is a dedicated technician trained to operate the camera dolly. This technician places, levels, and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly and usually a camera operator and camera assistant as riders. If the dolly has a moveable vertical axis, such as a hydraulic arm, then the dolly grip also operates the "boom". If both axes are used simultaneously, this type of dolly shot is known as a compound move. A dolly grip must work closely with the camera crew to perfect these complex movements during rehearsals. Focusing the lens is critical to capturing a sharp image, so a dolly grip must hit his/her marks in concert with a camera assistant who pulls focus. It is a skill that experience can hone to a point, but the best dolly grips are known for their "touch," and that makes them highly sought-after talents. Despite this expertise, these key members of the filmmaking community have on occasion been dubbed with the derogatory term, "dolly jockey". A dolly grip is also employed when the camera is operated in handheld mode. While the camera operator is moving with the camera, the dolly grip is responsible for the operator's safety, helping them to "blindly" negotiate their way through sometimes complicated environments. The dolly grip silently directs the operator away from walls and other obstacles that the operator cannot see while concentrating on the image in the camera viewfinder. The same is true when the camera is operated with a Steadicam or similar body-mounted stabilization tool.
A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture still photographs. Since early in the 21st century the majority of mobile phones in use are camera phones. Most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras. Their usual fixed focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting. Lacking a physical shutter, most have a long shutter lag. Flash, where present, is usually weak. Optical zoom and tripod screws are rare. Some also lack a USB connection, removable memory card, or other way of transferring their pictures more quickly than by the phone's inherent communication feature. The first camera phone was sold in 2000 in Japan, a J-Phone model, about a decade after the first digital camera was sold in Japan in December 1989. Some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, which apply most acutely in low light conditions and in any case have not inhibited their widespread use. Most model lines improve in these regards every year or two. Some, such as the Droid Incredible only have a menu choice to start an application program to activate the camera. Others, such as the BlackBerry Storm 2, Droid X, Motorola V980 and Nokia 5800 also have a separate camera button for quickness and convenience. Windows Phones can be configured to operate as a camera even if the phone is asleep. Some camera phones are designed to resemble separate low-end digital compact cameras in appearance and to some extent in features and picture quality, and are branded as both mobile phones and cameras, including certain Sony phones.
A roll cage is a specially engineered and constructed frame built in the passenger compartment of a vehicle to protect its occupants from being injured in an accident, particularly in the event of a roll-over. There are many different roll cage designs depending on the application, hence different racing organizations have differing specifications and regulations. They also help to stiffen the chassis, which is desirable in racing applications. A roll bar is a single bar behind the driver that provides moderate roll-over protection. Due to the lack of a protective top, some modern convertibles utilize a strong windscreen frame acting as a roll bar. Also, a roll hoop may be placed behind both headrests, which is essentially a roll bar spanning the width of a passenger's shoulders. A newer form of rollover protection, pioneered on the Mercedes-Benz R129 in 1989, is deployable roll hoops that are normally hidden within the body of a car. When sensors detect an imminent rollover, the roll hoops quickly extend and lock in place. Cars that have a deployable rollover protection system include the Peugeot 307 CC, Volvo C70, Mercedes-Benz SL 500, and Jaguar XK.
A traditional lobster roll is a sandwich filled with lobster meat soaked in butter and served on a steamed hot dog bun or similar roll, so that the opening is on the top rather than on the side. There are variations of this sandwich made in other parts of New England, which may contain diced celery or scallion, and mayonnaise. The sandwich may also contain lettuce, lemon juice, salt and black pepper. Traditional New England restaurants serve lobster rolls with potato chips or french fries on the side. The lobster roll was first originated at a restaurant named Perry's, in Milford, Connecticut as early as 1929., according to John Mariani's, "Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink." Once Perry's put the new sandwich on its menu, its popularity spread up and down the Connecticut coast, but not far beyond. For those residing in Connecticut, a lobster roll served warm is simply called a "lobster roll" while the lobster roll served cold as it is throughout the rest of the northeast region and the world is called a "lobster salad roll" . The lobster salad roll took off on the Eastern End of Long Island, NY starting in 1965, pioneered by the Lobster Roll Restaurant The Lobster Roll.
A dashcam, dashboard camera, car DVR, driving recorder, or event data recorder (EDR) is an onboard camera that continuously records the view through a vehicle's front windscreen and sometimes rear or other windows. Some dashcams include a camera to record the interior of the car in 360 degrees inside camera, usually in a ball form and can automatically send pictures and video using 4G. EDRs and some dashcams also record acceleration/deceleration g-force, speed, steering angle, GPS data, etc. A wide-angle 130, 170° or more front camera may be attached to the interior windscreen, to the rear-view mirror (clip on), or to the top of the dashboard, by suction cup or adhesive-tape mount. A rear camera is usually mounted in the rear window or in the registration plate, with a RCA Video output to the display monitor/screen. The resolution will determine the overall quality of the video. Full HD or 1080p (1920×1080) is standard for Dash HD cams. Dash cameras may have 1080p, 1296p, 1440p, or higher definition for a front camera and 720p for a back camera and include f/1.8 aperture and night vision mode. Dashcams can provide video evidence in the event of a road accident. When parked, dashcams can capture video and picture evidence if vandalism is detected 360° parking monitor and send it to the owner usually employing 4G.
|Motion control photography|
Motion control photography
Motion control photography is a technique used in still and motion photography that enables precise control of, and optionally also allows repetition of, camera movements. It can be used to facilitate special effects photography. The process can involve filming several elements using the same camera motion, and then compositing the elements into a single image. Other effects are often used along with motion control, such as chroma key to aid the compositing. Motion control camera rigs are also used in still photography with or without compositing; for example in long exposures of moving vehicles. Today's computer technology allows the programmed camera movement to be processed, such as having the move scaled up or down for different sized elements. Common applications of this process include shooting with miniatures, either to composite several miniatures or to composite miniatures with full-scale elements. The process is also commonly used when duplication of an element which cannot be physically duplicated is required; motion control is the primary method of featuring multiple instances of the same actor in a shot that involves camera movement. For this technique, the camera typically films exactly the same motion in exactly the same location while the actor performs different parts. A blank take (with no actor in the shot) is sometimes also taken to give compositors a reference of what parts of the shot are different in each take. This, in common film-making language, is also known as shooting a "plate". In today's film, the reference take is also useful for digital manipulation of the shots, or for adding digital elements. A simple duplication shot confines each "copy" of an element to one part of the screen. It is far more difficult to composite the shots when the duplicate elements cross paths, though digital technology has made this easier to achieve. Several basic camera tricks are sometimes utilized with this technique, such as having the hand of a body double enter a shot to interact with the actor while the duplicate's arm is to be off-screen. For the sake of compositing, the background elements of the scene must remain identical between takes, requiring anything movable to be locked down; the blank reference take can aid in resolving any discrepancies between the other shots. Similar technology in modern film allows for a camera to record its exact motion during a shot so that the motion can be duplicated by a computer in the creation of computer generated elements for the same shot.
A stereo camera is a type of camera with two or more lenses with a separate image sensor or film frame for each lens. This allows the camera to simulate human binocular vision, and therefore gives it the ability to capture three-dimensional images, a process known as stereo photography. Stereo cameras may be used for making stereoviews and 3D pictures for movies, or for range imaging. The distance between the lenses in a typical stereo camera (the intra-axial distance) is about the distance between one's eyes (known as the intra-ocular distance) and is about 6.35 cm, though a longer base line (greater inter-camera distance) produces more extreme 3-dimensionality. In the 1950s, stereo cameras gained some popularity with the Stereo Realist and similar cameras that employed 135 film to make stereo slides. 3D pictures following the theory behind stereo cameras can also be made more inexpensively by taking two pictures with the same camera, but moving the camera a few inches either left or right. If the image is edited so that each eye sees a different image, then the image will appear to be 3D. This method has problems with objects moving in the different views, though works well with still life. Stereo cameras are sometimes mounted in cars to detect the lane's width and the proximity of an object on the road. Not all two-lens cameras are used for taking stereoscopic photos. A twin-lens reflex camera uses one lens to image to a focusing/composition screen and the other to capture the image on film. These are usually in a vertical configuration. Examples include would be a vintage Rolleiflex or a modern twin lens like a Mamiya C330.
Roll-off is the steepness of a transmission function with frequency, particularly in electrical network analysis, and most especially in connection with filter circuits in the transition between a passband and a stopband. It is most typically applied to the insertion loss of the network, but can, in principle, be applied to any relevant function of frequency, and any technology, not just electronics. It is usual to measure roll-off as a function of logarithmic frequency, consequently, the units of roll-off are either decibels per decade (dB/decade), where a decade is a 10-times increase in frequency, or decibels per octave (dB/8ve), where an octave is 2-times increase in frequency. The concept of roll-off stems from the fact that in many networks roll-off tends towards a constant gradient at frequencies well away from the cut-off point of the frequency curve. Roll-off enables the cut-off performance of such a filter network to be reduced to a single number. Note that roll-off can occur with decreasing frequency as well as increasing frequency, depending on the bandform of the filter being considered: for instance a low-pass filter will roll-off with increasing frequency, but a high-pass filter or the lower stopband of a band-pass filter will roll-off with decreasing frequency. For brevity, this article describes only low-pass filters. This is to be taken in the spirit of prototype filters; the same principles may be applied to high-pass filters by interchanging phrases such as "above cut-off frequency" and "below cut-off frequency".
An Arctic roll is a British dessert made of vanilla ice cream wrapped in a thin layer of sponge cake to form a roll, with a layer of raspberry flavoured sauce between the sponge and the ice cream. The dessert was invented in the 1950s by a Czech lawyer, Ernest Velden, who had emigrated to England in 1939. He set up a factory in Eastbourne producing Arctic Roll in 1958, and the dessert quickly became very popular. During the 1980s more than 25 miles of Birds Eye Arctic Roll were sold each month. However, sales slumped during the 1990s and eventually the manufacturer of Arctic Roll, Birds Eye, stopped producing the dessert. The 2008 economic downturn saw the reappearance of Arctic Roll as consumers increasingly looked for low-cost foods. While some consumers view the Arctic Roll as comfort food, others view it as old fashioned and the food writer Nigel Slater has even described it as tasting of "frozen carpet". Nonetheless, Birds Eye reported "overwhelming consumer demand" for the dessert. Indeed, from when Birds Eye started marketing Arctic Rolls again in December 2008 until April 2009, sales of the product were estimated at £3.5 million, or 3 million boxes. Commentators suggest that aside from Arctic Roll's low price, many consumers buy the dessert out of feelings of nostalgia. A number of UK supermarkets sell their own brand versions of Arctic Roll, both chocolate and raspberry variants, and did so even when Birds Eye were not marketing the product.
Dutch roll is a type of aircraft motion, consisting of an out-of-phase combination of "tail-wagging" and rocking from side to side. This yaw-roll coupling is one of the basic flight dynamic modes. This motion is normally well damped in most light aircraft, though some aircraft with well-damped Dutch roll modes can experience a degradation in damping, as airspeed decreases and altitude increases. Dutch roll stability can be artificially increased by the installation of a yaw damper. Wings placed well above the center of mass, sweepback and dihedral wings tend to increase the roll restoring force, and therefore increase the Dutch roll tendencies; this is why high-winged aircraft often are slightly anhedral, and transport-category swept-wing aircraft are equipped with yaw dampers. In aircraft design, Dutch roll results from relatively weaker positive directional stability as opposed to positive lateral stability. When an aircraft rolls around the longitudinal axis, a sideslip is introduced into the relative wind in the direction of the rolling motion. Strong lateral stability begins to restore the aircraft to level flight. At the same time, somewhat weaker directional stability attempts to correct the sideslip by aligning the aircraft with the perceived relative wind. Since directional stability is weaker than lateral stability for the particular aircraft, the restoring yaw motion lags significantly behind the restoring roll motion. As such, the aircraft passes through level flight as the yawing motion is continuing in the direction of the original roll. At that point, the sideslip is introduced in the opposite direction and the process is reversed.
Arricam is a 35 mm movie camera line manufactured by Arri. It is Arri's flagship sync-sound camera line, replacing the Arriflex 535 line. The design was developed by Fritz Gabriel Bauer and Walter Trauninger, and is heavily derivative of the cameras Bauer created for his Moviecam company, which was bought out by Arri in the mid-1990s. As such, the Arricam is a fusion of the mechanical and intuitive design innovations of the Moviecam and the interchangeable accessories and complex electronic integration of the Arriflex. As of 2006, the Arricam is considered, along with the Panaflex Millennium line, the top sync-sound camera system currently in usage, and is extremely popular amongst bigger budget feature films. The line comprises two camera body models, the ST (Studio) and LT (Lite). The Arricam ST is intended as a full-capability camera, including two camera magazine mounting configurations, whereas the Arricam LT is optimized for smaller, lightweight usage in handheld and Steadicam application, with only the option to mount the magazine in the rear position. Both cameras use motorized displacement magazines, have electronic rotating mirror shutters mounted beneath the film gate (as opposed to beside it, as in Panavision cameras), and contain independently adjustable sprocket pulleys within the camera body.
a chamber, or instrument having a chamber. Specifically: The camera obscura when used in photography. See Camera, and Camera obscura
— Webster Dictionary