Synonyms containing cash grant
We've found 2,192 synonyms:
kash, n. coin or money: ready money.—v.t. to turn into or exchange for money: to pay money for.—ns. Cash′-account′, an account to which nothing is carried but cash: a form of account with a bank, by which a person is entitled to draw out sums as required by way of loan to a stipulated amount—also called Cash′-cred′it; Cash′-book, a book in which an account is kept of the receipts and disbursements of money; Cashier′, a cash-keeper: one who has charge of the receiving and paying of money; Cash′-pay′ment, payment in ready money; Cash′-rail′way, a mechanical device adopted in large shops and warehouses for the interchange of cash between the counters and the cash-desk.—Hard cash, ready money; Out of cash, or In cash, without or with money: out of, or in, pocket. [A doublet of Case, a box—O. Fr. casse, a box.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
|Cash and cash equivalents|
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents (CCE) are the most liquid current assets found on a business's balance sheet. Cash equivalents are short-term commitments "with temporarily idle cash and easily convertible into a known cash amount". An investment normally counts to be a cash equivalent when it has a short maturity period of 90 days or less, and can be included in the cash and cash equivalents balance from the date of acquisition when it carries an insignificant risk of changes in the asset value; with more than 90 days maturity, the asset is not considered as cash and cash equivalents. Equity investments mostly are excluded from cash equivalents, unless they are essentially cash equivalents, for instance, if the preferred shares acquired within a short maturity period and with specified recovery date.One of the company's crucial health indicators is its ability to generate cash and cash equivalents. So, a company with relatively high net assets and significantly less cash and cash equivalents can mostly be considered an indication of non-liquidity. For investors and companies cash and cash equivalents are generally counted to be "low risk and low return" investments and sometimes analysts can estimate company's ability to pay its bills in a short period of time by comparing CCE and current liabilities. Nevertheless, this can happen only if there are receivables that can be converted into cash immediately.However, companies with a big value of cash and cash equivalents are targets for takeovers (by other companies), since their excess cash helps buyers to finance their acquisition. High cash reserves can also indicate that the company is not effective at deploying its CCE resources, whereas for big companies it might be a sign of preparation for substantial purchases. The opportunity cost of saving up CCE is the return on equity that company could earn by investing in a new product or service or expansion of business.
|Ulysses S. Grant|
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th president of the United States following his success as military commander in the American Civil War. Under Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military; the war, and secession, ended with the surrender of Robert E. Lee's army at Appomattox Court House. As president, Grant led the Radical Republicans in their effort to eliminate vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery, protect African American citizenship, and defeat the Ku Klux Klan. In foreign policy, Grant sought to increase American trade and influence, while remaining at peace with the world. Although his Republican Party split in 1872 as reformers denounced him, Grant was easily reelected. During his second term the country's economy was devastated by the Panic of 1873, while investigations exposed corruption scandals in the administration. The conservative white Southerners regained control of Southern state governments and Democrats took control of the federal House of Representatives. By the time Grant left the White House in 1877, his Reconstruction policies were being undone. A career soldier, Grant graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and served in the Mexican–American War. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the Union army. In 1862, Grant was promoted to major general and took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee. He then led Union forces to victory after initial setbacks in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. In July 1863, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two. After the Battle of Chattanooga in late 1863, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general and commander of all of the Union armies. As commander, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles in 1864, which ended with Grant trapping Lee at Petersburg, Virginia. During the siege, Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns launched by generals William Tecumseh Sherman, Philip Sheridan, and George Henry Thomas in other theaters. Finally breaking through Lee's trenches, the Union Army captured Richmond in April 1865. Lee surrendered his depleted forces to Grant at Appomattox as the Confederacy collapsed. Most historians have hailed Grant's military genius, despite losses of men.
|Operating cash flow|
Operating cash flow
In financial accounting, operating cash flow, cash flow provided by operations, cash flow from operating activities or free cash flow from operations, refers to the amount of cash a company generates from the revenues it brings in, excluding costs associated with long-term investment on capital items or investment in securities. The International Financial Reporting Standards defines operating cash flow as cash generated from operations less taxation and interest paid, investment income received and less dividends paid gives rise to operating cash flows. To calculate cash generated from operations, one must calculate cash generated from customers and cash paid to suppliers. The difference between the two reflects cash generated from operations. Cash generated from operating customers revenue as reported - increase in operating trade receivables - investment income - other income that is non cash and/or non sales related Cash paid to operating suppliers costs of sales- Stock Variation = Purchase of goods. + all other expenses - increase in operating trade payables
|Net present value|
Net present value
In finance, the net present value or net present worth of a time series of cash flows, both incoming and outgoing, is defined as the sum of the present values of the individual cash flows of the same entity. In the case when all future cash flows are incoming and the only outflow of cash is the purchase price, the NPV is simply the PV of future cash flows minus the purchase price. NPV is a central tool in discounted cash flow analysis and is a standard method for using the time value of money to appraise long-term projects. Used for capital budgeting and widely used throughout economics, finance, and accounting, it measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows, in present value terms, above the cost of funds. NPV can be described as the “difference amount” between the sums of discounted: cash inflows and cash outflows. It compares the present value of money today to the present value of money in the future, taking inflation and returns into account The NPV of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or discount curve and outputs a price; the converse process in DCF analysis — taking a sequence of cash flows and a price as input and inferring as output a discount rate — is called the yield and is more widely used in bond trading.
Flying cash (飛錢) is a type of paper negotiable instrument used during China's Tang dynasty invented by merchants but adopted by the state. Its name came from their ability to transfer cash across vast distances without physically transporting it. It is a precursor to true banknotes which appeared during the Song dynasty. According to the New Book of Tang, in the year 804, merchants were using flying cash. Between 805 and 820 there was a shortage of copper cash coins which proved to be a hindrance for daily business transactions in the Tang dynasty. The creation of the flying cash happened after a tax reform that allowed for the partial acceptance of taxes in money, which had increased the demand for currency which scared the government that merchants would remove cash coins from the capital to circulate so they ordered the local governments to set up monetary systems based on silk, other fabrics, and daily items akin to barter which hampered long-distance trade in the Tang dynasty and harmed the national economy. The people that had the largest benefit from the introduction of flying cash were tea merchants and these merchant helped improve the trade between the capital and the regions. Originally the government of the Tang dynasty was less than receptive to the idea of bills of exchange and had attempted banning them on multiple occasions, but in 812 flying cash were officially accepted as a valid means of exchange. After the government had accepted these bills the supervision of flying cash was handled by the Ministry of Revenue (戶部), the Tax Bureau (度支司), and the Salt Monopoly Bureau (鹽錢司). The state began printing their own notes. Flying cash would remain in use until the early period of the Song dynasty.
|Cash flow statement|
Cash flow statement
In financial accounting, a cash flow statement, also known as statement of cash flows, is a financial statement that shows how changes in balance sheet accounts and income affect cash and cash equivalents, and breaks the analysis down to operating, investing, and financing activities. Essentially, the cash flow statement is concerned with the flow of cash in and out of the business. The statement captures both the current operating results and the accompanying changes in the balance sheet. As an analytical tool, the statement of cash flows is useful in determining the short-term viability of a company, particularly its ability to pay bills. International Accounting Standard 7, is the International Accounting Standard that deals with cash flow statements. People and groups interested in cash flow statements include: ⁕Accounting personnel, who need to know whether the organization will be able to cover payroll and other immediate expenses ⁕Potential lenders or creditors, who want a clear picture of a company's ability to repay ⁕Potential investors, who need to judge whether the company is financially sound ⁕Potential employees or contractors, who need to know whether the company will be able to afford compensation
grant, v.t. to bestow or give over: to give possession of: to admit as true what is not yet proved: to concede.—v.i. (Shak.) to consent.—n. a bestowing: something bestowed, an allowance: a gift: (Eng. law) conveyance of property by deed.—adj. Grant′able.—ns. Grantēē′ (law), the person to whom a grant, gift, or conveyance is made; Grant′er, Grant′or (law), the person by whom a grant or conveyance is made.—Take for granted, to presuppose as certainly true. [O. Fr. graanter, craanter, creanter, to promise, as if from a Low L. credentāre—L. credĕre, to believe.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Dividend policy is concerned with financial policies regarding paying cash dividend in the present or paying an increased dividend at a later stage. Whether to issue dividends, and what amount, is determined mainly on the basis of the company's unappropriated profit (excess cash) and influenced by the company's long-term earning power. When cash surplus exists and is not needed by the firm, then management is expected to pay out some or all of those surplus earnings in the form of cash dividends or to repurchase the company's stock through a share buyback program. If there are no NPV positive opportunities, i.e. projects where returns exceed the hurdle rate, and excess cash surplus is not needed, then – finance theory suggests – management should return some or all of the excess cash to shareholders as dividends. This is the general case, however there are exceptions. For example, shareholders of a "growth stock", expect that the company will, almost by definition, retain most of the excess earnings so as to fund future growth internally. By with holding current dividend payments to shareholders, managers of growth companies are hoping that dividend payments will be increased proportionality higher in the future, to offset the retainment of current earnings and the internal financing of present investment projects. Management must also choose the form of the dividend distribution, generally as cash dividends or via a share buyback. Various factors may be taken into consideration: where shareholders must pay tax on dividends, firms may elect to retain earnings or to perform a stock buyback, in both cases increasing the value of shares outstanding. Alternatively, some companies will pay "dividends" from stock rather than in cash; see Corporate action. Financial theory suggests that the dividend policy should be set based upon the type of company and what management determines is the best use of those dividend resources for the firm to its shareholders. As a general rule, shareholders of growth companies would prefer managers to have a share buyback program, whereas shareholders of value or secondary stocks would prefer the management of these companies to payout surplus earnings in the form of cash dividends.
Cash concentration is the transfer of funds from diverse accounts into a central account to improve the efficiency of cash management. The consolidation of cash into a single account allows a company to maintain smaller cash balances overall, and to identify excess cash available for short term investments. The cash available in different bank accounts are pooled into a master account. The advantages of cash concentration are 1) Cash control 2) Cash visibility
Grant writing is the practice of completing an application process for a financial grant provided by an institution such as a government department, corporation, foundation or trust. Such application processes are often referred to as either a grant proposal or a grant submission. Successful grant writing requires a clear understanding of grantsmanship. While the principles and fundamentals of grantsmanship apply broadly, it is important to know the target and to be able to tune the language appropriately. Understanding the creation process of a grant proposal is a big part of the success in grant writing. The basic parts to the proposal creation process include: Analyzing the intended audience for the proposal Analyzing the purpose of the proposal Gathering information about the subject of the proposal Choosing the appropriate type of proposal (in this case, a grant proposal) Writing the proposal Formatting the proposal Revising, editing, and proof reading the proposal Submitting the proposal
Cincinnati was General Ulysses S. Grant's most famous horse during the American Civil War. He was the son of Lexington, the fastest four-mile thoroughbred in the United States and one of the greatest sires. Cincinnati was also the grandson of the great Boston, who sired Lexington. At an early age, Grant emotionally bonded to horses. A shy, quiet child, he found joy in working with and riding them. Grant excelled in horsemanship at West Point, and at graduation, he put on an outstanding jumping display. Grant owned many horses in his lifetime, including one named Jeff Davis, so named because he acquired it during his Vicksburg Campaign from Jefferson Davis's Mississippi plantation. Cincinnati was a gift from an admirer during the War. The horse was large, handsome, and powerful, and he quickly became Grant's favorite. When Grant rode Cincinnati to negotiate Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, the animal became immortalized. Virtually all depictions of Grant in drawings, granite, and bronze, are astride Cincinnati including at the Ulysses S. Grant Memorial, located on the Mall in Washington, D.C., at the base of Capitol Hill.
Cash flow is the movement of money into or out of a business, project, or financial product. It is usually measured during a specified, limited period of time. Measurement of cash flow can be used for calculating other parameters that give information on a company's value and situation. Cash flow can be used, for example, for calculating parameters: it discloses cash movements over the period. ⁕to determine a project's rate of return or value. The time of cash flows into and out of projects are used as inputs in financial models such as internal rate of return and net present value. ⁕to determine problems with a business's liquidity. Being profitable does not necessarily mean being liquid. A company can fail because of a shortage of cash even while profitable. ⁕as an alternative measure of a business's profits when it is believed that accrual accounting concepts do not represent economic realities. For instance, a company may be notionally profitable but generating little operational cash. In such a case, the company may be deriving additional operating cash by issuing shares or raising additional debt finance.
In business, a cash cow is a product or a business unit that generates unusually high profit margins: so high that it is responsible for a large amount of a company's operating profit. This profit far exceeds the amount necessary to maintain the cash cow business, and the excess is used by the business for other purposes. A firm is said to be acting as a cash cow when its earnings per share is equal to its dividends per share, or in other words, when a firm pays out 100% of its net free cash flow to its shareholders as dividends at the end of each accounting term. This also implies that the firm is not investing in product improvements and is essentially considering itself not in a growth market. This could be the case if a company sees the future of a product line as bleak as a result of some other technology taking away its market share. Risks of a cash cow include complacency, with management ignoring the need for change as market forces erode value; and ongoing turf wars between the management in charge of the cash cow and other managers trying to garner support for other products. That said, every business longs for a cash cow product. The BCG growth-share matrix developed by the Boston Consulting Group, still used by analysts in large companies, uses the term "cash cow" to describe business units experiencing high market share and low market growth.
|Free cash flow|
Free cash flow
In corporate finance, free cash flow is cash flow available for distribution among all the securities holders of a corporate entity. They include equity holders, debt holders, preferred stock holders, convertible security holders, and so on. Note that the first three lines above are calculated for you on the standard Statement of Cash Flows. When Net profit and Tax rate applicable are given, you can also calculate it by taking: where, ⁕Net Capital Expenditure = Capex - Depreciation & Amortization ⁕Tax Shield = Net Interest Expense X Effective Tax Rate When PAT and Debit/Equity ratio is available: where d - is the debt/equity ratio. e.g.: For a 3:4 mix it will be 3/7. Therefore, There are two differences between Net Income and Free Cash Flow: The first is the accounting for the consumption of capital goods. The Net Income measure uses depreciation, while the Free Cash Flow measure uses last period's net capital purchases. The second difference is that the Free Cash Flow measurement deducts increases in net working capital, where the net income approach does not. Typically, in a growing company with a 30 day collection period for receivables, a 30 day payment period for purchases, and a weekly payroll, it will require more and more working capital to finance the labor and profit components embedded in the growing receivables balance. The net income measure essentially says, "You can take that cash home" because you would still have the same productive capacity as you started with. The Free Cash Flow measurement however would say, "You can't take that home" because you would cramp the enterprise from operating itself forward from there.