# Synonyms containing commissioner of internal revenue

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 Commissioner of Internal Revenue Commissioner of Internal RevenueThe Commissioner of Internal Revenue is the head of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), an agency within the United States Department of the Treasury.The office of Commissioner was created by Congress by the Revenue Act of 1862. Section 7803 of the Internal Revenue Code provides for the appointment of a Commissioner of Internal Revenue to administer and supervise the execution and application of the internal revenue laws. The Commissioner is appointed by the President, with the consent of the Senate, for a five-year term.The current commissioner is Charles P. Rettig.— Wikipedia Revenue RevenueIn business, revenue or turnover is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. In many countries, such as the United Kingdom, revenue is referred to as turnover. Some companies receive revenue from interest, royalties, or other fees. Revenue may refer to business income in general, or it may refer to the amount, in a monetary unit, received during a period of time, as in "Last year, Company X had revenue of $42 million." Profits or net income generally imply total revenue minus total expenses in a given period. In accounting, revenue is often referred to as the "top line" due to its position on the income statement at the very top. This is to be contrasted with the "bottom line" which denotes net income. For non-profit organizations, annual revenue may be referred to as gross receipts. This revenue includes donations from individuals and corporations, support from government agencies, income from activities related to the organization's mission, and income from fundraising activities, membership dues, and financial investments such as stock shares in companies. In general usage, revenue is income received by an organization in the form of cash or cash equivalents. Sales revenue or revenues is income received from selling goods or services over a period of time. Tax revenue is income that a government receives from taxpayers.— Freebase Police commissioner Police commissionerCommissioner is a senior rank used in many police forces and may be rendered Police Commissioner or Commissioner of Police. In some organizations, the commissioner is a political appointee, and may or may not actually be a professional police officer. In these circumstances, there is often a professional chief of police in charge of day-to-day operations. Usually, however, the commissioner is the professional head of the organization. In police services in the Commonwealth and the USA, the title of commissioner typically designates the head of an entire police force. In some countries, such as in many Latin American countries and in France, the title of commissioner is more junior and instead refers to the head of a single police station.— Freebase Inland Revenue Inland RevenueThe Inland Revenue was, until April 2005, a department of the British Government responsible for the collection of direct taxation, including income tax, national insurance contributions, capital gains tax, inheritance tax, corporation tax, petroleum revenue tax and stamp duty. More recently, the Inland Revenue also administered the Tax Credits schemes, whereby monies, such as Working Tax Credit and Child Tax Credit, are paid by the Government into a recipient's bank account or as part of their wages. The Inland Revenue was also responsible for the payment of child benefit. The Inland Revenue was merged with HM Customs and Excise to form HM Revenue and Customs which came into existence on 18 April 2005. The former Inland Revenue is thus now part of HM Revenue and Customs, but it is still the name by which the tax gathering department of government is commonly known by British people and is often referred to as "the Tax Man".— Freebase Laffer curve Laffer curveIn economics, the Laffer curve is a representation of the relationship between possible rates of taxation and the resulting levels of government revenue. It illustrates the concept of taxable income elasticity—i.e., taxable income will change in response to changes in the rate of taxation. It postulates that no tax revenue will be raised at the extreme tax rates of 0% and 100% and that there must be at least one rate where tax revenue would be a non-zero maximum. The Laffer curve is typically represented as a graph which starts at 0% tax with zero revenue, rises to a maximum rate of revenue at an intermediate rate of taxation, and then falls again to zero revenue at a 100% tax rate. The actual existence and shape of the curve is uncertain and disputed. One potential result of the Laffer curve is that increasing tax rates beyond a certain point will be counter-productive for raising further tax revenue. A hypothetical Laffer curve for any given economy can only be estimated and such estimates are controversial. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics reports that estimates of revenue-maximizing tax rates have varied widely, with a mid-range of around 70%. Although economist Arthur Laffer does not claim to have invented the Laffer curve concept, it was popularized with policymakers following an afternoon meeting with Ford Administration officials Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld in 1974 in which he reportedly sketched the curve on a napkin to illustrate his argument. The term "Laffer curve" was coined by Jude Wanniski, who was also present at the meeting. The basic concept was not new; Laffer himself notes antecedents in the writings of Ibn Khaldun and John Maynard Keynes.— Freebase Marginal revenue Marginal revenueIn microeconomics, marginal revenue is the additional revenue that will be generated by increasing product sales by one unit. It can also be described as the unit revenue the last item sold has generated for the firm. In a perfectly competitive market, the additional revenue generated by selling an additional unit of a good is equal to the price the firm is able to charge the buyer of the good. This is because a firm in a competitive market will always get the same price for every unit it sells regardless of the number of units the firm sells since the firm's sales can never impact the industry's price. However, a monopoly determines the entire industry's sales. As a result, it will have to lower the price of all units sold to increase sales by 1 unit. Therefore the Marginal Revenue generated is always less than the price the firm is able to charge for the unit sold since each reduction in price causes unit revenue to decline on every good the firm sells. The marginal revenue is the price the firm gets on the additional unit sold, less the revenue lost by reducing the price on all other units that were sold prior to the decrease in price!— Freebase gross income gross incomeIn United States tax law, income that is subject to taxation under the Internal Revenue Code (see Internal Revenue Code 61).— Wiktionary Internal Revenue Service Internal Revenue ServiceThe Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. The IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and the interpretation and enforcement of the Internal Revenue Code. The first income tax was assessed in 1862 to raise funds for the American Civil War, with a rate of 3%. Today the IRS collects over$2.4 trillion each tax year from around 234 million tax returns.— Freebase Gwalior GwaliorGwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located to the south of Agra, 319 kilometres south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometres north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of India, and the city and its fortress have served as the center of several of historic northern Indian kingdoms. It is famous for Gwalior Fort, which has changed hands many times. From the Tomaras in the 8th century, it passed to the Mughals, then the Marathas under the Scindias. Besides being the Administrative Headquarters of Gwalior district and Gwalior division, Gwalior also hosts some administrative offices of Chambal Division. Gwalior also hosts several Administrative Headquarters of the State as well the Country; Few of them are The High Court of Madhya-Pradesh, Office of The Narcotics Commissioner of India, Office of The Accountant-General of Madhya-Pradesh, Office of The President-Board Of Revenue of Madhya-Pradesh, Office of The Transport-Commissioner of Madhya-Pradesh, Office of The Commissioner-Land Records & Settlements Madhya-Pradesh, Office of The State Excise Commissioner of Madhya-Pradesh etc. Gwalior also hosts Premiere Government Institutions like Defense Research & Development Establishment, Country's only Border Security Force Academy, National Cadet Corps Officer's Training Academy. Gwalior also features a major Indian Air Force Station, A major Indian Army Cantonment, Central Intelligence Bureau HO. Numerous Colleges and Universities are located in Gwalior including IIITM Gwalior & IITTM Gwalior.— Freebase Internal wave Internal waveInternal waves are gravity waves that oscillate within a fluid medium, rather than on its surface. To exist, the fluid must be stratified: the density must change (continuously or discontinuously) with depth/height due to changes, for example, in temperature and/or salinity. If the density changes over a small vertical distance (as in the case of the thermocline in lakes and oceans or an atmospheric inversion), the waves propagate horizontally like surface waves, but do so at slower speeds as determined by the density difference of the fluid below and above the interface. If the density changes continuously, the waves can propagate vertically as well as horizontally through the fluid. Internal waves, also called internal gravity waves, go by many other names depending upon the fluid stratification, generation mechanism, amplitude, and influence of external forces. If propagating horizontally along an interface where the density rapidly decreases with height, they are specifically called interfacial (internal) waves. If the interfacial waves are large amplitude they are called internal solitary waves or internal solitons. If moving vertically through the atmosphere where substantial changes in air density influences their dynamics, they are called anelastic (internal) waves. If generated by flow over topography, they are called Lee waves or mountain waves. If the mountain waves break aloft, they can result in strong warm winds at the ground known as Chinook winds (in North America) or Foehn winds (in Europe). If generated in the ocean by tidal flow over submarine ridges or the continental shelf, they are called internal tides. If they evolve slowly compared to the Earth's rotational frequency so that their dynamics are influenced by the Coriolis effect, they are called inertia gravity waves or, simply, inertial waves. Internal waves are usually distinguished from Rossby waves, which are influenced by the change of Coriolis frequency with latitude. — Wikipedia Overspill OverspillIn non-standard analysis, a branch of mathematics, overspill is a widely used proof technique. It is based on the fact that the set of standard natural numbers N is not an internal subset of the internal set *N of hypernatural numbers. By applying the induction principle for the standard integers N and the transfer principle we get the principle of internal induction: For any internal subset A of *N, if ⁕1 is an element of A, and ⁕for every element n of A, n + 1 also belongs to A, then If N were an internal set, then instantiating the internal induction principle with N, it would follow N = *N which is known not to be the case. The overspill principle has a number of useful consequences: ⁕The set of standard hyperreals is not internal. ⁕The set of bounded hyperreals is not internal. ⁕The set of infinitesimal hyperreals is not internal. In particular: ⁕If an internal set contains all infinitesimal non-negative hyperreals, it contains a positive non-infinitesimal hyperreal. ⁕If an internal set contains N it contains an unbounded element of *N.— Freebase Revenue sharing Revenue sharingRevenue sharing has multiple, related meanings depending on context. In business, revenue sharing refers to the sharing of profits and losses among different groups. One form shares between the general partner and limited partners in a limited partnership. Another form shares with a company's employees, and another between companies in a business alliance. On the Internet, revenue sharing is also known as cost per sale, and accounts for about 80% of affiliate compensation programs. E-commerce web site operators using revenue sharing pay affiliates a certain percentage of sales revenues generated by customers whom the affiliate refer via various advertising methods. Another form of online revenue sharing consists in people working together and registering online in a way similar to that of a corporation, and sharing the proceeds. A third form of revenue sharing on the internet consists of enticing internet users to sign up and create content by offering a share of advertising revenue.— Freebase Elastic energy Elastic energyElastic energy is the mechanical potential energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as it is subjected to elastic deformation by work performed upon it. Elastic energy occurs when objects are impermanently compressed, stretched or generally deformed in any manner. Elasticity theory primarily develops formalisms for the mechanics of solid bodies and materials. (Note however, the work done by a stretched rubber band is not an example of elastic energy. It is an example of entropic elasticity.) The elastic potential energy equation is used in calculations of positions of mechanical equilibrium. The energy is potential as it will be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy and sound energy, when the object is allowed to return to its original shape (reformation) by its elasticity. U = 1 2 k Δ x 2 {\displaystyle U={\frac {1}{2}}k\,\Delta x^{2}\,} The essence of elasticity is reversibility. Forces applied to an elastic material transfer energy into the material which, upon yielding that energy to its surroundings, can recover its original shape. However, all materials have limits to the degree of distortion they can endure without breaking or irreversibly altering their internal structure. Hence, the characterizations of solid materials include specification, usually in terms of strains, of its elastic limits. Beyond the elastic limit, a material is no longer storing all of the energy from mechanical work performed on it in the form of elastic energy. Elastic energy of or within a substance is static energy of configuration. It corresponds to energy stored principally by changing the inter-atomic distances between nuclei. Thermal energy is the randomized distribution of kinetic energy within the material, resulting in statistical fluctuations of the material about the equilibrium configuration. There is some interaction, however. For example, for some solid objects, twisting, bending, and other distortions may generate thermal energy, causing the material's temperature to rise. Thermal energy in solids is often carried by internal elastic waves, called phonons. Elastic waves that are large on the scale of an isolated object usually produce macroscopic vibrations sufficiently lacking in randomization that their oscillations are merely the repetitive exchange between (elastic) potential energy within the object and the kinetic energy of motion of the object as a whole. Although elasticity is most commonly associated with the mechanics of solid bodies or materials, even the early literature on classical thermodynamics defines and uses "elasticity of a fluid" in ways compatible with the broad definition provided in the Introduction above.Solids include complex crystalline materials with sometimes complicated behavior. By contrast, the behavior of compressible fluids, and especially gases, demonstrates the essence of elastic energy with negligible complication. The simple thermodynamic formula: d U = − P d V , {\displaystyle dU=-P\,dV\,} where dU is an infinitesimal change in recoverable internal energy U, P is the uniform pressure (a force per unit area) applied to the material sample of interest, and dV is the infinitesimal change in volume that corresponds to the change in internal energy. The minus sign appears because dV is negative under compression by a positive applied pressure which also increases the internal energy. Upon reversal, the work that is done by a system is the negative of the change in its internal energy corresponding to the positive dV of an increasing volume. In other words, the system loses stored internal energy when doing work on its surroundings. Pressure is stress and volumetric change corresponds to changing the relative spacing of points within the material. The stress-strain-internal energy relationship of the foregoing formula is repeated in formulations for elastic energy of solid materials with complicated crystalline structure. — Wikipedia Commissioner CommissionerA commissioner is, in principle, the title given to a member of a commission or to an individual who has been given a commission. In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to include a variety of senior officials, often sitting on a specific commission. In particular, commissioner frequently refers to senior police or government officials. A High Commissioner is equivalent to an ambassador, originally between the United Kingdom and the Dominions and now between all Commonwealth states, whether Commonwealth realms, republics, or countries having a monarch other than that of the realms. The title is also sometimes given to senior officials in the private sector; for instance, many North American sports leagues.— Freebase Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug AdministrationThe Food and Drug Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, and veterinary products. The FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include sanitation requirements on interstate travel and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The 21st and current Commissioner is Dr. Margaret A. Hamburg. She has served as Commissioner since February 2009.— Freebase

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