Synonyms containing commissioners of customs
We've found 896 synonyms:
Macaya (floruit 1802), was a Kongolese-born Haitian revolutionary military leader. Macaya was one of the first black rebel leaders in Saint-Domingue to ally himself with the French Republican commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel. He helped to lead forces that recaptured Cap-Français on behalf of the French Republicans. Macaya was born in west-central Africa, probably in the Kingdom of Kongo, and taken to the French colony of Saint-Domingue as a slave. After the outbreak of the 1791 slave rebellion in northern Saint-Domingue, Macaya became a lieutenant of an elderly rebel commander named Pierrot. Pierrot's rebel forces were based in the hills outside of Le Cap (Cap Francaise), near Bréda plantation by 1793. In that year a conflict developed between the Republican French commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel, and the recently arrived French military governor Francois-Thomas Galbaud du Fort. The commissioners eventually had Galbaud arrested and imprisoned on a ship in Le Cap's harbor. There Galbaud was surrounded by other political prisoners and disaffected sailors, who eventually convinced him to attempt a coup against the commissioners. Galbaud's supporters attacked Le Cap twice on two consecutive days. On the second day they succeeded in taking control of the city. Sonthonax and Polverel were forced to take refuge outside the city.There they began to seek support from the several-thousand strong rebel forces nearby led by Pierrot and Macaya. These leaders accepted the commissioners' offers of official recognition of their freedom and French citizenship in return for military aid against Galbaud's forces in Le Cap. Pierrot and Macaya's forces invaded Le Cap and defeated Galbaud's supporters, retaking the town for the Republicans. This incident marked the beginning of the Republican commissioners' escalating dependence on military support from former slaves, which ultimately helped to inspire the general emancipation decrees in the colony. The commissioners' unilateral abolition of slavery in Saint-Domingue, in turn, was accepted by the French National Convention, and extended to the other French American colonies. In an attempt to recruit the major rebel leaders to the French Republican side, the commissioners sent Macaya as an emissary to the two most powerful rebel slave commanders in the north, Biassou and Jean-Francois. At the time these two leaders were allied with French royalists and Spain. But instead of convincing these two leaders to join the Republicans, Macaya himself defected to the royalist side. He issued a statement declaring his loyalty to the kings of France, Spain, and Kongo, who he described as the descendants of the biblical magi. Macaya may have been raised as a Catholic or exposed to Catholicism in Kongo.After Toussaint Louverture rose to power, Macaya had a sometimes tense relationship with the colony's most powerful military leader. At one point in time Louverture had Macaya imprisoned. Later on, however, in 1802, Macaya fought Leclerc's French army on behalf of Louverture. After most leading black generals in Saint-Domingue surrendered to the French or began to actively collaborate with them, Macaya continued to resist. His forces held the Limbé region in the colony's northern province. Macaya's rebel forces suffered serious losses at the hands of Haiti's future emperor, Dessalines, in early August 1802, when the latter was still fighting on behalf of the French.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods including animals, transports, personal effects and hazardous items in and out of a country. Depending on local legislation and regulations, the import or export of some goods may be restricted or forbidden, and the customs agency enforces these rules. The customs authority may be different from the immigration authority, which monitors persons who leave or enter the country, checking for appropriate documentation, apprehending people wanted by international arrest warrants, and impeding the entry of others deemed dangerous to the country. In most countries customs are attained through government agreements and international laws. A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the importation or exportation of goods. In the Kingdom of England, customs duties were typically part of the customary revenue of the king, and therefore did not need parliamentary consent to be levied, unlike excise duty, land tax, or other forms of taxes. Commercial goods not yet cleared through customs are held in a customs area, often called a bonded store, until processed. All authorised ports are recognised customs area.
|Common external tariff|
Common external tariff
A common external tariff (CET) must be introduced when a group of countries forms a customs union. The same customs duties, import quotas, preferences or other non-tariff barriers to trade apply to all goods entering the area, regardless of which country within the area they are entering. It is designed to end re-exportation; but it may also inhibit imports from countries outside the customs union and thereby diminish consumer choice and support protectionism of industries based within the customs union. The common external tariff is a mild form of economic union but may lead to further types of economic integration. In addition to having the same customs duties, the countries may have other common trade policies, such as having the same quotas, preferences or other non-tariff trade regulations apply to all goods entering the area, regardless of which country, within the area, they are entering. The main goal of the Custom Unions is to limit external influence, liberalize intra-regional trade, promote economic development and diversification in industrialization in the Community. Important examples of common external tariff are that of the Mercosur countries (Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Paraguay and Uruguay), the Common Customs Tariff of the Eurasian Economic Community customs union as well as the European Union Customs Union. STRUCTURE OF CET This is related to the internalization of terms-of-trade effects in the Common External Tariff which has the following Structure as adopted by the ECOWAS Council of Ministers at its 70th ordinary session in June 2013 is as follows The goods declared to Customs in the Community, must generally be classified according to the CET. Imported and exported goods must be declared stating under type they fall. This determines which rate of customs duty applies and how the goods are treated for statistical purposes.BENEFITS OF THE CET Increasing the Intra-regional trade: guarantying the availability of more goods to be traded regionally. The CET would provide durability in trade: traders would be able to make plans with the confidence that the tariff is constant. Policies affecting import tariffs can no longer be changed arbitrarily. This will ensure the attraction of more foreign direct investments. The enlargement of domestic market resulting a rise on turnover: this will lead the region to become a single market for imported goods. Increase in economies of scale resulting in the enlargement of internal industries. Increased production and productivity: with a large market to satisfy, production opportunities would increase. Casting down smuggling: smuggling is oftenly encouraged by the difference in tariffs, but when a region applies a common tariff, this will remove the necessity of buying smuggled products in regions which previously had high tariffs of the same goods.COSTS OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION Having a single market ensure a competitive environment for both consumers and markets which make monopolies existence hard. among the consequences of these unique markets is That ineffective companies market share will decrease and it may have to close down. Some sectors of the national economy may undergo of negative impact due to an increase on international competitivity which the main reason is the transition to single markets, specially companies that used to benefit of national market protection may have a hard time to deal against their more efficient peers. eventually, if the enterprise go wrong on organizing their methods, it will fail.
|Lord High Treasurer|
Lord High Treasurer
The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707. A holder of the post would be the third-highest-ranked Great Officer of State, below the Lord High Steward and the Lord High Chancellor. The Lord High Treasurer functions as the head of Her Majesty's Treasury. Since the 17th century, the office has often been held, not by a single person, but placed in commission, so that a board of individuals jointly exercise the powers of the Lord High Treasurer. Such persons are known as Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. The office has been in commission continuously since the resignation of Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury in 1714. Although the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801, it was not until the Consolidated Fund Act 1816 that the separate offices of 'Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain' and Lord High Treasurer of Ireland were united into one office as the 'Lord High Treasurer of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland' on 5 January 1817. The office continued in commission and the commissioners of the old office of 'Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain' continued as the commissioners of the new combined office.In modern times, by convention, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury include the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, usually serving as the 'First Lord of the Treasury', and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, serving as the 'Second Lord of the Treasury'. Other members of the government, usually whips in the House of Commons, are appointed to serve as the junior Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.
A customs area is an area designated for storage of commercial goods that have not yet cleared customs. It is surrounded by a customs border. Most international airports and harbours have designated customs areas, sometimes covering the whole facility and including extensive storage warehouses. For the purpose of customs duties, goods within the customs area are treated as being outside the country. This allows easy transshipment to a third country without customs authorities being involved. For this reason, customs areas are usually carefully controlled and fenced to prevent smuggling. However, the area is still territorially part of the country, so the goods within the area are subject to other local laws, and thus may be searched, impounded or turned back.
|Immigration and Naturalization Service|
Immigration and Naturalization Service
The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, referred to by some as former INS and by others as legacy INS, ceased to exist under that name on March 1, 2003, when most of its functions were transferred from the Department of Justice to three new entities – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and U.S. Customs and Border Protection – within the newly created Department of Homeland Security, as part of a major government reorganization following the September 11 attacks of 2001. INS was established on June 10, 1933, by their merger to administer matters related to established immigration and naturalization policy. After 1890, the Federal government, rather than the individual states, regulated immigration into the United States, and the Immigration Act of 1891 established a Commissioner of Immigration in the Treasury Department. Over the years, these matters were later transferred to the purview of the United States Department of Commerce and Labor after 1903, the Department of Labor after 1913, and the Department of Justice after 1940. In 2003 the administration of immigration services, including permanent residence, naturalization, asylum, and other functions became the responsibility of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, which existed only for a short time before changing to its current name, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. The investigative and enforcement functions were combined with INS and U.S. Customs investigators, the Federal Protective Service, and the Federal Air Marshal Service, to create U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The border functions of the INS, which included the Border Patrol along with INS Inspectors, were combined with U.S. Customs Inspectors into the newly created U.S. Customs and Border Protection. The 2000 documentary Well-Founded Fear provided the first and only time a film crew was privy to a behind-the-scenes look at the INS asylum process in the U.S.
A Customs declaration is a form that lists the details of goods that are being imported or exported when a citizen or visitor enters a customs territory (country's borders). Most countries require travellers to complete a customs declaration form when bringing notified goods (alcoholic drinks, tobacco products, animals, fresh food, plant material, seeds, soils, meats, and animal products) across international borders. Posting items via international mail also requires the sending party to complete a customs declaration form. The declaration form helps the customs to control the goods that entered the country, which can affect the country's economy, security or environment. A levy duty may be applied. Travellers have to declare everything they acquired abroad and possibly pay customs duty tax on goods. Some countries offer a duty-free allowance of certain products which may not need to be declared explicitly.
|HM Customs and Excise|
HM Customs and Excise
HM Customs and Excise (properly known as Her Majesty's Customs and Excise (or His as appropriate), often abbreviated to HMCE) was a department of the British Government formed in 1909 by the merger of HM Customs and HM Excise; its primary responsibility was the collection of customs duties, excise duties, and other indirect taxes. The payment of customs dues has been recorded in Britain for over one thousand years and HMCE was formed from predecessor bodies with a long history. With effect from 18 April 2005, HMCE merged with the Inland Revenue (which was responsible for the administration and collection of direct taxes) to form a new department: HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC).
|Queen Anne's Bounty|
Queen Anne's Bounty
Queen Anne's Bounty was a fund established in 1704 to augment the incomes of the poorer clergy of the Church of England. The bounty was funded by the tax on the incomes of all Church of England clergy, which was paid to the Pope until the Reformation, and thereafter to the Crown. In 1890, the total amount distributed was £176,896. On 2 April 1947, by the Church Commissioners Measure 1947, the functions and assets of Queen Anne's Bounty were merged with the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to form the Church Commissioners.
|Writ of assistance|
Writ of assistance
A writ of assistance is a written order issued by a court instructing a law enforcement official, such as a sheriff or a tax collector, to perform a certain task. Historically, several types of writs have been called "writs of assistance". Most often, a writ of assistance is "used to enforce an order for the possession of lands". When used to evict someone from real property, such a writ is also called a writ of restitution or a writ of possession. In the area of customs, writs of assistance were first authorized by an act of the English Parliament in 1660, and were issued by the Court of Exchequer to help customs officials search for smuggled goods. These writs were called "writs of assistance" because they called upon sheriffs, other officials, and loyal subjects to "assist" the customs official in carrying out his duties. In general, customs writs of assistance served as general search warrants that did not expire, allowing customs officials to search anywhere for smuggled goods without having to obtain a specific warrant. These writs became controversial when they were issued by courts in British America in the 1760s, especially the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Controversy over these general writs of assistance inspired the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbids general search warrants in the United States. In the United Kingdom, general writs of assistance continued to be issued until 1819.
A customs airport is an airport notified by the appropriate customs authority of the country as an airport which shall be airports for the unloading of imported goods and the loading of export goods or any class of such goods. Such places the places which alone shall be inland container depots for the unloading of imported goods and the loading of and clearance of export goods or any class of such goods. Customs airports may not have international commercial flights but if they have the customs officers may only be in attendance for scheduled international services. Such airports may also have boarding stations in it or near them for the purpose of boarding of, or disembarkation from, vessels by officers of customs.
A custom house or customs house was a building housing the offices for the government officials who processed the paperwork for the import and export of goods into and out of a country. Customs officials also collected customs duty on imported goods. The custom house was typically located in a seaport or in a city on a major river with access to the ocean. These cities acted as a port of entry into a country. The government had officials at such locations to collect taxes and regulate commerce. Due to advances in electronic information systems, the increased volume of international trade and the introduction of air travel, the custom house is now often a historical anachronism. There are many examples of buildings around the world whose former use was as a custom house but that have since been converted for other use, such as museums or civic buildings. In the United Kingdom since 1386, the phrase custom house has been in use over the term customs house. This was after a "Custom House" was erected at Wool Wharf in Tower Ward, to contain just the officials of the Great Custom on Wool and Woolfells. The singular form was used even though in later years the Custom House was the location of other Customs officials as well.
|Foreign trade zone|
Foreign trade zone
A foreign-trade zone in the United States is a geographical area, in a United States Port of Entry, where commercial merchandise, both domestic and foreign receives the same Customs treatment it would if it were outside the commerce of the United States. Another definition of an FTZ states that it is an isolated, enclosed and policed area operated as a public utility, furnished with facilities for loading, unloading, handling, storing, manipulating, manufacturing and exhibiting goods and for reshipping them by land, water or air. Merchandise of every description may be held in the Zone without being subject to Customs duties and other ad valorem taxes . This tariff and tax relief is designed to lower the costs of U.S.-based operations engaged in international trade and thereby create and retain the employment and capital investment opportunities that result from those operations. These special geographic areas – Foreign-Trade Zones – are established "in or adjacent to" U.S. Ports of Entry and are under the supervision of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection under the United States Homeland Security Council. Since 1986, U.S. Customs' oversight of FTZ operations has been conducted on an audit-inspection basis known as Compliance Reviews, whereby compliance is assured through audits and spot checks under a surety bond, rather than through on-site supervision by Customs personnel.
|World Customs Organization|
World Customs Organization
The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. The WCO is noted for its work in areas covering the development of international conventions, instruments, and tools on topics such as commodity classification, valuation, rules of origin, collection of customs revenue, supply chain security, international trade facilitation, customs enforcement activities, combating counterfeiting in support of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), drugs enforcement, illegal weapons trading, integrity promotion, and delivering sustainable capacity building to assist with customs reforms and modernization. The WCO maintains the international Harmonized System (HS) goods nomenclature, and administers the technical aspects of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements on Customs Valuation and Rules of Origin.
|Authorized economic operator|
Authorized economic operator
According to the World Customs Organization (WCO), an authorized economic operator (AEO) is "a party involved in the international movement of goods in whatever function that has been approved by or on behalf of a national Customs administration as complying with WCO or equivalent supply chain security standards. Authorized Economic Operators include inter alia manufacturers, importers, exporters, brokers, carriers, consolidators, intermediaries, ports, airports, terminal operators, integrated operators, warehouses and distributors" The growth of global trade and increasing security threats to the international movement of goods have forced customs administrations to shift their focus more and more to securing the international trade flow and away from the traditional task of collecting customs duties. Recognizing these developments, the WCO, drafted the WCO Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate global trade (SAFE). In the framework, several standards are included that can assist Customs administrations in meeting these new challenges. Developing an Authorized Economic Operator programme is a core part of SAFE.