Synonyms containing convalescent plasma
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In nuclear fusion power research, a divertor is a device within a tokamak that allows the online removal of waste material from the plasma while the reactor is still operating. This allows control over the buildup of fusion products in the fuel, and removes impurities in the plasma that have entered into it from the vessel lining. The divertor was initially introduced during the earliest studies of fusion power systems in the 1950s. It was realized early on that successful fusion would result in heavier ions being created and left in the fuel (the so-called "fusion ash"). These impurities were responsible for the loss of heat, and caused other effects that made it more difficult to keep the reaction going. The divertor was proposed as a solution to this problem. Operating on the same principle as a mass spectrometer, the plasma passes through the divertor region where heavier ions are flung out of the fuel mass by centrifugal force, colliding with some sort of absorber material, and depositing its energy as heat. Initially considered to be a device required for operational reactors, few early designs included a divertor. When early long-shot reactors started to appear in the 1970s, a serious practical problem emerged. No matter how tightly constrained, plasma continued to leak out of the main confinement area, striking the walls of the reactor core and causing all sorts of problems. A major concern was sputtering in reactors with higher power and particle flux density, which caused ions of the vacuum chamber's wall metal to flow into the fuel and to cool it. During the 1980s it became common for reactors to include a feature known as the limiter, which is a small piece of material that projects a short distance into the outer edge of the main plasma confinement area. Ions from the fuel that are travelling outwards strike the limiter, thereby protecting the walls of the chamber from this damage. However, the problems with material being deposited into the fuel remained; the limiter simply changed where that material was coming from. This led to the re-emergence of the divertor, as a device for protecting the reactor itself. In these designs, magnets pull the lower edge of the plasma to create a small region where the outer edge of the plasma, the "Scrape-Off Layer" (SOL), hits a limiter-like plate. The divertor improves on the limiter in several ways, but mainly because modern reactors try to create plasmas with D-shaped cross-sections ("elongation" and "triangularity") so the lower edge of the D is a natural location for the divertor. In modern examples the plates are replaced by lithium metal, which better captures the ions and causes less cooling when it enters the plasma.In ITER and the latest configuration of Joint European Torus, the lowest region of the torus is configured as a divertor, while Alcator C-Mod was built with divertor channels at both top and bottom.A tokamak featuring a divertor is known as a divertor tokamak or divertor configuration tokamak. In this configuration, the particles escape through a magnetic "gap" (separatrix), which allows the energy absorbing part of the divertor to be placed outside the plasma. The divertor configuration also makes it easier to obtain a more stable H-mode of operation. The plasma facing material in the divertor faces significantly different stresses compared to the majority of the first wall.
|Plasma cell dyscrasia|
Plasma cell dyscrasia
Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. The exception to this rule is the disorder termed non-secretory multiple myeloma; this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). At one end of this spectrum of hematological disorders, detection of one of these myeloma proteins in an individual's blood or urine indicates the presence of a common and clinically silent disorder termed MGUS, i.e. monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors.The clinical importance of understanding this spectrum of diseases is that it can be used to: a) advise individuals on the likelihood of their condition progressing to a malignant phase; b) monitor individuals for the many complications that may occur at any stage of the dyscrasias so that they can be treated to avoid or reduce their clinical impacts; and c) monitor patients for transitions to malignancy so that the malignancy can be treated at an early stage when treatment results are best. Unless otherwise noted, the advice and monitoring given here are those recommended by the International Myeloma Working Group in 2014 and updated in 2016.
Plasma acceleration is a technique for accelerating charged particles, such as electrons, positrons and ions, using an electric field associated with electron plasma wave or other high-gradient plasma structures. The plasma acceleration structures are created either using ultra-short laser pulses or energetic particle beams that are matched to the plasma parameters. These techniques offer a way to build high performance particle accelerators of much smaller size than conventional devices The basic concepts of plasma acceleration and its possibilities were originally conceived by Prof. John M. Dawson of UCLA in 1979. Initial designs of experiment for "wakefield" were conceived at UCLA. Current experimental devices show accelerating gradients several orders of magnitude better than current particle accelerators. Plasma accelerators have immense promise for innovation of affordable and compact accelerators for various applications ranging from high energy physics to medical and industrial applications. Medical applications include betatron and free-electron light sources for diagnostics or radiation therapy and protons sources for hadron therapy. Plasma accelerators generally use wakefields generated by plasma density waves. However, plasma accelerators can operate in many different regimes depending upon the characteristics of the plasmas used.2020
Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms, thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions. Ionization can be induced by other means, such as strong electromagnetic field applied with a laser or microwave generator, and is accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, if present. Plasma can also be created by the application of an electric field on a gas, where the underlying process is the Townsend avalanche. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma, therefore, has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases and is considered a distinct state of matter. Like gas, plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume unless enclosed in a container; unlike gas, under the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments, beams and double layers. Some common plasmas are found in stars and neon signs. In the universe, plasma is the most common state of matter for ordinary matter, most of which is in the rarefied intergalactic plasma and in stars. Much of the understanding of plasmas has come from the pursuit of controlled nuclear fusion and fusion power, for which plasma physics provides the scientific basis.
an albuminous body present in dead muscle, being formed in the process of coagulation which takes place in rigor mortis; the clot formed in the coagulation of muscle plasma. See Muscle plasma, under Plasma
— Webster Dictionary
of or pertaining to plasma; having the character of plasma; containing, or conveying, plasma
— Webster Dictionary
A nonthermal plasma, cold plasma or non-equilibrium plasma is a plasma which is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, because the electron temperature is much hotter than the temperature of heavy species (ions and neutrals). As only electrons are thermalized, their Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution is very different than the ion velocity distribution. When one of the velocities of a species does not follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, the plasma is said to be non-Maxwellian. A kind of common nonthermal plasma is the mercury-vapor gas within a fluorescent lamp, where the "electron gas" reaches a temperature of 20,000 K (19,700 °C; 35,500 °F) while the rest of the gas, ions and neutral atoms, stays barely above room temperature, so the bulb can even be touched with hands while operating.
The polar wind or plasma fountain is a permanent outflow of plasma from the polar regions of Earth's magnetosphere, caused by the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's atmosphere. The solar wind ionizes gas molecules in the upper atmosphere to such high energy that some of them reach escape velocity and pour into space. A considerable percentage of these ions remain bound inside Earth's magnetic field, where they form part of the radiation belts. The term was coined in 1968 in a pair of articles by Banks and Holzer and by Ian Axford. Since the process by which the ionospheric plasma flows away from the Earth along magnetic field lines is similar to the flow of solar plasma away from the sun's corona (the solar wind), Axford suggested the term "polar wind." The idea for the polar wind originated with the desire to solve the paradox of the terrestrial helium budget. This paradox consists of the fact that helium in the Earth's atmosphere seems to be produced (via radioactive decay of uranium and thorium) faster than it is lost by escaping from the upper atmosphere. The realization that some helium could be ionized, and therefore escape the earth along open magnetic field lines near the magnetic poles (the 'polar wind'), is one possible solution to the paradox. Further research came from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument on the Dynamics Explorer spacecraft, in the 1980s. Recently, the SCIFER sounding rocket was launched into the plasma heating region of the fountain.
The magnetopause is the abrupt boundary between a magnetosphere and the surrounding plasma. For planetary science, the magnetopause is the boundary between the planet’s magnetic field and the solar wind. The location of the magnetopause is determined by the balance between the pressure of the dynamic planetary magnetic field and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. As the solar wind pressure increases and decreases, the magnetopause moves inward and outward in response. Waves along the magnetopause move in the direction of the solar wind flow in response to small scale variations in the solar wind pressure and to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The solar wind is supersonic and passes through a bow shock where the direction of flow is changed so that most of the solar wind plasma is deflected to either side of the magnetopause, much like water is deflected before the bow of a ship. The zone of shocked solar wind plasma is the magnetosheath. At Earth and all the other planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, some solar wind plasma succeeds in entering and becoming trapped within the magnetosphere. At Earth, the solar wind plasma which enters the magnetosphere forms the plasma sheet. The amount of solar wind plasma and energy which enters the magnetosphere is regulated by the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field which is embedded in the solar wind.
Blood plasma is the straw-colored/pale-yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension. It makes up about 55% of total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid. It is mostly water, and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes, hormones and carbon dioxide. Plasma also serves as the protein reserve of the human body. It plays a vital role in an intravascular osmotic effect that keeps electrolytes in balanced form and protects the body from infection and other blood disorders. Blood plasma is prepared by spinning a tube of fresh blood containing an anticoagulant in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m³, or 1.025 kg/l. Blood serum is blood plasma without clotting factors. Plasmapheresis is a medical therapy that involves blood plasma extraction, treatment, and reintegration.
Definition:- Plasma proteins, also termed serum proteins or blood proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and metals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity and functioning and in the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement components, protease inhibitors or kinin precursors. Contrary to popular belief, hemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. Explanation:- Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins, and is a major contributor to maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones and lipids assisting in immune function. Fibrinogen comprise 7% of blood proteins; conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin is essential for blood clotting. The remainder of plasma proteins is made up of regulatory proteins such as enzymes, proenzymes and hormones. All blood proteins are synthesized in liver except for the gamma globulins. Separating serum proteins by electrophoresis is a valuable diagnostic tool as well as a way to monitor clinical progress. Current research regarding blood plasma proteins is centered on performing proteomics analyses of serum/plasma in the search for biomarkers. These efforts started with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis efforts in the 1970s and in more recent times this research has been performed using LC-tandem MS based proteomics. The normal laboratory value of serum total protein is around 7 g/dL.
A plasmoid is a coherent structure of plasma and magnetic fields. Plasmoids have been proposed to explain natural phenomena such as ball lightning, magnetic bubbles in the magnetosphere, and objects in cometary tails, in the solar wind, in the solar atmosphere, and in the heliospheric current sheet. Plasmoids produced in the laboratory include field-reversed configurations, spheromaks, and in dense plasma focuses. The word plasmoid was coined in 1956 by Winston H. Bostick to mean a "plasma-magnetic entity": The plasma is emitted not as an amorphous blob, but in the form of a torus. We shall take the liberty of calling this toroidal structure a plasmoid, a word which means plasma-magnetic entity. The word plasmoid will be employed as a generic term for all plasma-magnetic entities.
A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood. This includes: whole blood; blood components; and plasma derivatives. Whole blood is not commonly used in transfusion medicine. Blood components include: red blood cell concentrates or suspensions; platelets produced from whole blood or via apheresis; plasma; and cryoprecipitate. Plasma derivatives are plasma proteins prepared under pharmaceutical manufacturing conditions, these include: albumin; coagulation factor concentrates; and immunoglobulins.
plazm, n. a mould or matrix: protoplasm—also Plas′ma.—adjs. Plasmat′ic, -al, plastic, formative; Plas′mic, pertaining to plasma, protoplasmic.—ns. Plasmō′dium, composite masses of primitive protozoa, in which numerous units are fused, or in rare cases simply combined in close contact; Plas′mogen, true protoplasm; Plasmog′ony, the generation of an organism from plasma; Plasmol′ogy, minute or microscopic anatomy, histology.—v.t. Plas′molyse.—n. Plasmol′ysis, the contraction of the protoplasm in active cells under the action of certain reagents.—adj. Plasmolyt′ic.
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
When discussing weapons in science fiction, a plasma weapon is a type of raygun that fires a stream, bolt, pulse or toroid of plasma. The primary damage mechanism of these fictional weapons is usually thermal transfer; it typically causes serious burns, and often immediate death of living creatures, and melts or evaporates other materials. In certain fiction, plasma weapons may also have a significant kinetic energy component, that is to say the ionized material is projected with sufficient momentum to cause some secondary impact damage in addition to causing high thermal damage. In some fictions, like Star Wars, plasma is highly effective against mechanical targets such as droids. The ionized gas disrupts their systems. Plasma weapons are often, especially in video games, depicted as very powerful, but short-ranged and/or less energy-efficient than other weapon types.