Synonyms containing fatal exception error
We've found 2,631 synonyms:
|Fatal exception error|
Fatal exception error
In computing, a fatal error or fatal exception error is an error that causes a program to abort and may therefore return the user to the operating system. When this happens, data that the program was processing may be lost. A fatal error is usually distinguished from a fatal system error. A fatal error occurs typically in any of the following cases:. An illegal instruction has been attempted Invalid data or code has been accessed An operation is not allowed in the current ring or CPU mode A program attempts to divide by zero. In some systems, such as Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, a fatal error causes the operating system to create a log entry or to save an image of the process.
In numerical analysis and scientific computing, truncation error is the error made by truncating an infinite sum and approximating it by a finite sum. For instance, if we approximate the sine function by the first two non-zero term of its Taylor series, as in for small, the resulting error is a truncation error. It is present even with infinite-precision arithmetic, because it is caused by truncation of the infinite Taylor series to form the algorithm. Often, truncation error also includes discretization error, which is the error that arises from taking a finite number of steps in a computation to approximate an infinite process. For example, in numerical methods for ordinary differential equations, the continuously varying function that is the solution of the differential equation is approximated by a process that progresses step by step, and the error that this entails is a discretization or truncation error. See Truncation error for more on this. Occasionally, round-off error is also called truncation error, especially if the number is rounded by truncation.
|Management by exception|
Management by exception
Management by exception is a style of business management that focuses on identifying and handling cases that deviate from the norm, recommended as best practice by the project management method. Management by exception has both a general business application and a business intelligence application. General business exceptions are cases that deviate from the normal behavior in a business process and need to be cared for in a unique manner, typically by human intervention. Their cause might include: process deviation, infrastructure or connectivity issues, external deviation, poor quality business rules, malformed data, etc. Management by exception here is the practice of investigating, resolving and handling such occurrences by using skilled staff and software tools. Good management can contribute to efficiency of business processes. Often in these cases the process will be called exception management, as exceptional cases are not the sole focus of the managerial policy, and exception management (as opposed to management by exception) denotes a more moderate application of the process. Management by exception (MBE), when applied to business is a style of management that gives employees the responsibility to make decisions and fulfill their work or projects by themselves. It consists of focus and analysis of statistically relevant anomalies in the data. If an unusual situation or deviation in the recorded data appears, which could cause difficulties for the business and can't be managed by the employee at his level, the employee should pass the decision on to the next higher level. For example, if all products are selling at their expected volumes for the quarter, except one particular product which is underperforming or overperforming at a statistically relevant margin, only the data for that product will be presented to the managers for further investigation and discovery of the root cause. Management by exception can bring forward business errors and oversights, ineffective strategies that need to be improved, changes in competition and business opportunities. Management by exception is intended to reduce the managerial load and enable managers to spend their time more effectively in areas where it will have the most impact. This management concept is widely attributed to Frederick W. Taylor and was first discussed in his work, "Shop management: A paper read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. N.Y: American Society of Mechanical Engineers.Exception management also has an IT application. When writing code, if the programmer sees that there will be an exceptional case where a predefined assumption of the application will be breached, the programmer will need to deal with that exception programmatically from the outset.
causing death or destruction; deadly; mortal; destructive; calamitous; as, a fatal wound; a fatal disease; a fatal day; a fatal error
— Webster Dictionary
In computer science, a syntax error refers to an error in the syntax of a sequence of characters or tokens that is intended to be written in a particular programming language. For compiled languages syntax errors occur strictly at compile-time. A program will not compile until all syntax errors are corrected. For interpreted languages, however, not all syntax errors can be reliably detected until run-time, and it is not necessarily simple to differentiate a syntax error from a semantic error; many don't try at all. In 8-bit home computers that used BASIC interpreter as their primary user interface, the SYNTAX ERROR error message became somewhat notorious, as this was the response to any command or user input the interpreter couldn't parse. A syntax error may also occur when an invalid equation is entered into a calculator. This can be caused, for instance, by opening brackets without closing them, or less commonly, entering several decimal points in one number. In Java the following is a syntactically correct statement: while the following is not: A compiler will flag a syntax error when given source code that does not meet the requirements of the language grammar.
In computing and computer programming, exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing - during the execution of a program. In general, an exception breaks the normal flow of execution and executes a pre-registered exception handler; the details of how this is done depend on whether it is a hardware or software exception and how the software exception is implemented. It is provided by specialized programming language constructs, hardware mechanisms like interrupts, or operating system (OS) inter-process communication (IPC) facilities like signals. Some exceptions, especially hardware ones, may be handled so gracefully that execution can resume where it was interrupted. An alternative approach to exception handling in software is error checking, which maintains normal program flow with later explicit checks for contingencies reported using special return values, an auxiliary global variable such as C's errno, or floating point status flags. Input validation, which preemptively filters exceptional cases, is also an approach.
ek-sept′, v.t. to take or leave out: to exclude.—v.i. to object.—prep. leaving out: excluding: but.—adj. and n. Except′ant.—prep. Except′ing, with the exception of, except.—n. Excep′tion, the act of excepting: that which is excepted: exclusion: objection: offence.—adj. Excep′tionable, objectionable.—adv. Excep′tionably.—adj. Excep′tional, peculiar.—adv. Excep′tionally.—adjs. Excep′tious, disposed to take exception; Except′ive, including, making, or being an exception; Except′less (Shak.), making an exception, usual.—n. Except′or. [L. excipĕre, exceptum—ex, out, capĕre, to take.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
fāt, n. inevitable destiny or necessity: appointed lot: ill-fortune: doom: final issue: (pl.) the three goddesses of fate, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, who determined the birth, life, and death of men—the Fatal Sisters.—adj. Fāt′al, belonging to or appointed by fate: causing ruin or death: mortal: calamitous.—ns. Fāt′alism, the doctrine that all events are subject to fate, and happen by unavoidable necessity; Fāt′alist, one who believes in fatalism.—adj. Fāt′alistic, belonging to or partaking of fatalism.—n. Fatal′ity, the state of being fatal or unavoidable: the decree of fate: fixed tendency to disaster or death: mortality: a fatal occurrence.—adv. Fāt′ally.—adjs. Fāt′ed, doomed: destined: (Shak.) invested with the power of destiny: (Dryden) enchanted; Fate′ful, charged with fate.—adv. Fate′fully.—n. Fate′fulness. [L. fatum, a prediction—fatus, spoken—fāri, to speak.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Terry Bogard (Japanese: テリー・ボガード, Hepburn: Terī Bogādo) is a video game character created by SNK who is the protagonist of the Fatal Fury series. Introduced in Fatal Fury: King of Fighters, he is an American fighter who enters the worldwide tournaments called "The King of Fighters" to kill Geese Howard, a criminal who killed his father, Jeff Bogard. Following Geese's death during a fight, Terry decides to become the guardian of Geese's son Rock Howard. He is also a regular character in the crossover video game series The King of Fighters, where he continues participating in tournaments. He has also been a guest character in multiple games, most notably Nintendo's fighting game Super Smash Bros. Ultimate as downloadable content. In addition to video games, Terry has appeared in anime films based on his adventures from the Fatal Fury series, as well as soundtracks and manga serialized in Japanese monthly manga magazine Comic Bom Bom. SNK created Terry with the idea of a "macho" fighter which is reflected in his design. After several installments, Terry was redesigned to give him a more updated look in Garou: Mark of the Wolves where he is a more peaceful person. This had an impact on his design which was also altered for the The King of Fighters games. Terry's popularity led SNK to create a female version of him that appears in the game SNK Heroines: Tag Team Frenzy. Multiple voice actors have portrayed Terry since his introduction in the first Fatal Fury game. The character has been well received by video game players; he is ranked highly in several popularity polls conducted by SNK and video game magazines. Publications have praised the character's personality and movesets and how he was developed from Fatal Fury to The King of Fighters. However, Terry's genderbent version was the subject of mixed reception. Terry is featured prominently on merchandise from SNK and their crossover series, becoming an icon for them.
In finance, tracking error or active risk is a measure of the risk in an investment portfolio that is due to active management decisions made by the portfolio manager; it indicates how closely a portfolio follows the index to which it is benchmarked. The best measure is the standard deviation of the difference between the portfolio and index returns. Many portfolios are managed to a benchmark, typically an index. Some portfolios are expected to replicate, before trading and other costs, the returns of an index exactly (e.g., an index fund), while others are expected to 'actively manage' the portfolio by deviating slightly from the index in order to generate active returns. Tracking error is a measure of the deviation from the benchmark; the aforementioned index fund would have a tracking error close to zero, while an actively managed portfolio would normally have a higher tracking error. Thus the tracking error does not include any risk (return) that is merely a function of the market's movement. In addition to risk (return) from specific stock selection or industry and factor "betas", it can also include risk (return) from market timing decisions. Dividing portfolio active return by portfolio tracking error gives the information ratio, which is a risk adjusted performance measure.
|Automatic direction finder|
Automatic direction finder
An automatic direction finder (ADF) is a marine or aircraft radio-navigation instrument that automatically and continuously displays the relative bearing from the ship or aircraft to a suitable radio station. ADF receivers are normally tuned to aviation or marine NDBs operating in the LW band between 190 – 535 kHz. Like RDF units, most ADF receivers can also receive medium wave (AM) broadcast stations, though as mentioned, these are less reliable for navigational purposes. The operator tunes the ADF receiver to the correct frequency and verifies the identity of the beacon by listening to the Morse code signal transmitted by the NDB. On marine ADF receivers, the motorized ferrite-bar antenna atop the unit (or remotely mounted on the masthead) would rotate and lock when reaching the null of the desired station. A centerline on the antenna unit moving atop a compass rose indicated in degrees the bearing of the station. On aviation ADFs, the unit automatically moves a compass-like pointer (RMI) to show the direction of the beacon. The pilot may use this pointer to home directly towards the beacon, or may also use the magnetic compass and calculate the direction from the beacon (the radial) at which their aircraft is located. Unlike the RDF, the ADF operates without direct intervention, and continuously displays the direction of the tuned beacon. Initially, all ADF receivers, both marine and aircraft versions, contained a rotating loop or ferrite loopstick aerial driven by a motor which was controlled by the receiver. Like the RDF, a sense antenna verified the correct direction from its 180-degree opposite. More modern aviation ADFs contain a small array of fixed aerials and use electronic sensors to deduce the direction using the strength and phase of the signals from each aerial. The electronic sensors listen for the trough that occurs when the antenna is at right angles to the signal, and provide the heading to the station using a direction indicator. In flight, the ADF's RMI or direction indicator will always point to the broadcast station regardless of aircraft heading. Dip error is introduced, however, when the aircraft is in a banked attitude, as the needle dips down in the direction of the turn. This is the result of the loop itself banking with the aircraft and therefore being at a different angle to the beacon. For ease of visualisation, it can be useful to consider a 90° banked turn, with the wings vertical. The bearing of the beacon as seen from the ADF aerial will now be unrelated to the direction of the aircraft to the beacon. Dip error is sometimes wrongly confused with quadrantal error, which is the result of radio waves being bounced and reradiated by the airframe. Quadrantal error does not affect signals from straight ahead or behind, nor on the wingtips. The further from these cardinal points and the closer to the quadrantal points (i.e. 45°, 135°, 225° and 315° from the nose) the greater the effect, but quadrantal error is normally much less than dip error, which is always present when the aircraft is banked. ADF receivers can be used to determine current position, track inbound and outbound flight path, and intercept a desired bearing. These procedures are also used to execute holding patterns and non-precision instrument approaches.
The standard error is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of a statistic. The term may also be used to refer to an estimate of that standard deviation, derived from a particular sample used to compute the estimate. For example, the sample mean is the usual estimator of a population mean. However, different samples drawn from that same population would in general have different values of the sample mean. The standard error of the mean is the standard deviation of those sample means over all possible samples drawn from the population. Secondly, the standard error of the mean can refer to an estimate of that standard deviation, computed from the sample of data being analyzed at the time. In practical applications, the true value of the standard deviation is usually unknown. As a result, the term standard error is often used to refer to an estimate of this unknown quantity. In such cases it is important to be clear about what has been done and to attempt to take proper account of the fact that the standard error is only an estimate. Unfortunately, this is not often possible and it may then be better to use an approach that avoids using a standard error, for example by using maximum likelihood or a more formal approach to deriving confidence intervals. One well-known case where a proper allowance can be made arises where Student's t-distribution is used to provide a confidence interval for an estimated mean or difference of means. In other cases, the standard error may be used to provide an indication of the size of the uncertainty, but its formal or semi-formal use to provide confidence intervals or tests should be avoided unless the sample size is at least moderately large. Here "large enough" would depend on the particular quantities being analyzed.
Error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data and are used on graphs to indicate the error, or uncertainty in a reported measurement. They give a general idea of how accurate a measurement is, or conversely, how far from the reported value the true value might be. Error bars often represent one standard deviation of uncertainty, one standard error, or a certain confidence interval. These quantities are not the same and so the measure selected should be stated explicitly in the graph or supporting text. Error bars can be used to compare visually two quantities if various other conditions hold. This can determine whether differences are statistically significant. Error bars can also suggest goodness of fit of a given function, i.e., how well the function describes the data. Scientific papers in the experimental sciences are expected to include error bars on all graphs, though the practice differs somewhat between sciences, and each journal will have its own house style.
An exception (error condition) when handled by a debugger, such that the programmer has the first chance to study it; such an exception would otherwise proceed to a handler or (in its absence) crash the program.
Systematic errors are biases in measurement which lead to the situation where the mean of many separate measurements differs significantly from the actual value of the measured attribute. All measurements are prone to systematic errors, often of several different types. Sources of systematic error may be imperfect calibration of measurement instruments, changes in the environment which interfere with the measurement process and sometimes imperfect methods of observation can be either zero error or percentage error. For example, consider an experimenter taking a reading of the time period of a pendulum swinging past a fiducial mark: If their stop-watch or timer starts with 1 second on the clock then all of their results will be off by 1 second. If the experimenter repeats this experiment twenty times, then there will be a percentage error in the calculated average of their results; the final result will be slightly larger than the true period. Distance measured by radar will be systematically overestimated if the slight slowing down of the waves in air is not accounted for. Incorrect zeroing of an instrument leading to a zero error is an example of systematic error in instrumentation.