Synonyms containing interpenetrating
We've found 4 synonyms:
Pearlite is often said to be a two-phased, lamellar structure composed of alternating layers of alpha-ferrite and cementite that occurs in some steels and cast irons. In fact, the lamellar appearance is misleading since the individual lamellae within a colony are connected in three dimensions; a single colony is therefore an interpenetrating bicrystal of ferrite and cementite. In an iron-carbon alloy, during slow cooling pearlite forms by a eutectoid reaction as austenite cools below 727 °C. Pearlite is a common microstructure occurring in many grades of steels. The eutectoid composition of austenite is approximately 0.76% carbon; steel with less carbon content will contain a corresponding proportion of relatively pure ferrite crystallites that do not participate in the eutectoid reaction and cannot transform into pearlite. Likewise steels with higher carbon contents will form cementite before reaching the eutectoid point. The proportion of ferrite and cementite forming above the eutectoid point can be calculated from the iron/iron—carbide equilibrium phase diagram using the lever rule. Steels with pearlitic or near-pearlitic microstructure can be drawn into thin wires. Such wires, often bundled into ropes, are commercially used as piano wires, ropes for suspension bridges, and as steel cord for tire reinforcement. High degrees of wire drawing leads to pearlitic wires with yield strengths of several Giga Pascals. It makes pearlite one of the strongest structural bulk materials on earth. Some hypereutectoid pearlitic steel wires, when cold wire drawn to true strains above 5, can even show a maximal tensile strength above 6 GPa. Although pearlite is used in many engineering applications, the origin of its extreme strength is not well understood. It has been recently shown that cold drawing not only strengthens pearlite by refining the lamellae structure, but also simultaneously causes partial chemical decomposition of cementite and even a structural transition from crystalline to amorphous cementite. The deformation-induced decomposition and microstructural change of cementite is closely related to several other phenomena such as a strong redistribution of carbon and other alloy elements like Si and Mn in both the cementite and the ferrite phase; a variation of the deformation accommodation at the phase interfaces due to a change in the carbon concentration gradient at the interfaces; and mechanical alloying.
Crazing looks like a network of fine cracks on the surface of a material, for example in a glaze layer. Crazing is a phenomenon that frequently precedes fracture in some glassy thermoplastic polymers. Crazing occurs in regions of high hydrostatic tension, or in regions of very localized yielding, which leads to the formation of interpenetrating microvoids and small fibrils. If an applied tensile load is sufficient, these bridges elongate and break, causing the microvoids to grow and coalesce; as microvoids coalesce, cracks begin to form.
Poromechanics is a branch of physics and specifically continuum mechanics and acoustics that studies the behaviour of fluid-saturated porous media. A porous medium or a porous material is a solid permeated by an interconnected network of pores filled with a fluid. Usually both solid matrix and the pore network are assumed to be continuous, so as to form two interpenetrating continua such as in a sponge. Many natural substances such as rocks, soils, biological tissues, and man made materials such as foams and ceramics can be considered as porous media. Porous media whose solid matrix is elastic and the fluid is viscous are called poroelastic. A poroelastic medium is characterised by its porosity, permeability as well as the properties of its constituents. The concept of a porous medium originally emerged in soil mechanics, and in particular in the works of Karl von Terzaghi, the father of soil mechanics. However a more general concept of a poroelastic medium, independent of its nature or application, is usually attributed to Maurice Anthony Biot, a Belgian-American engineer. In a series of papers published between 1935 and 1957 Biot developed the theory of dynamic poroelasticity which gives a complete and general description of the mechanical behaviour of a poroelastic medium. Biot's equations of the linear theory of poroelasticity are derived from
The multiverse is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite possible universes that together comprise everything that exists and can exist: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. The term was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist William James. The various universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes. The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy. In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative timelines", and "dimensional planes," among others. Hindu cosmology as well as Buddhist cosmology hints the existence of multiverse in various texts such as Vedas and Puranas. In popular culture, Fringe is based on the concept of multiverse and parallel universe.