Synonyms containing lead nation
We've found 9,137 synonyms:
led, n. a well-known metal of a bluish-white colour: the plummet for sounding at sea: a thin plate of lead separating lines of type: (pl.) sheets of lead for covering roofs, a flat roof so covered.—v.t. to cover or fit with lead: (print.) to separate lines with leads.—n. Lead′-arm′ing, tallow, &c., placed in the hollow of a sounding-lead, to ascertain the nature of the bottom.—adjs. Lead′ed, fitted with or set in lead: (print.) separated by leads, as the lines of a book, &c.; Lead′en, made of lead: heavy: dull; Lead′en-heart′ed, having an unfeeling heart; Lead′en-step′ping (Milt.), moving slowly.—ns. Lead′-glance, lead ore, galena; Lead′-mill, a mill for grinding white-lead: a leaden disc charged with emery for grinding gems; Lead′-pen′cil, a pencil or instrument for drawing, &c., made of blacklead; Lead′-poi′soning, or Plumbism, poisoning by the absorption and diffusion of lead in the system, its commonest form, Lead or Painter's Colic; Leads′man, a seaman who heaves the lead.—adj. Lead′y, like lead. [A.S. leád; Ger. loth.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
lēd, v.t. to show the way by going first: to guide by the hand: to direct: to precede: to transport or carry: to allure.—v.i. to go before and show the way: to have a tendency: to exercise dominion:—pr.p. lead′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. led.—n. first place: precedence: direction: (naut.) the course of a running rope from end to end: the right of playing the first card in a round or trick: a main conductor in electrical distribution.—ns. Lead′er, one who leads or goes first: a chief: the leading editorial article in a newspaper (also Leading article): principal wheel in any machinery; Leaderette′, a brief newspaper leader; Lead′ership, state or condition of a leader or conductor; Lead′ing-bus′iness, the acting of the principal parts or rôles in plays; Lead′ing-mō′tive (Ger. leit-motif), in dramatic music, a principal theme: a theme, usually of but few tones, by which any personage or particular emotion is indicated by suggestion as often as it occurs; Lead′ing-ques′tion, a legal term for a question so put to a witness as to suggest the answer that is wished or expected.—n.pl. Lead′ing-strings, strings used to lead children when beginning to walk: vexatious care or custody.—Lead apes in hell (see Ape); Lead astray, to draw into a wrong course, to seduce from right conduct; Lead by the nose, to make one follow submissively; Lead in prayer, to offer up prayer in an assembly, uniting the prayers of others; Lead off, to begin or take the start in anything; Lead on, to persuade to go on, to draw on; Lead one a dance (see Dance); Lead up to, to bring about by degrees, to prepare for anything by steps or stages. [A.S. lǽdan, to lead, lád, a way; Ger. leiten, to lead.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Lead glass is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass. Lead glass contains typically 18–40 weight% lead oxide, while modern lead crystal, historically also known as flint glass due to the original silica source, contains a minimum of 24% PbO. Lead glass is desirable owing to its decorative properties. Originally discovered by Englishman George Ravenscroft in 1674, the technique of adding lead oxide improved the appearance of the glass and made it easier to melt using sea-coal as a furnace fuel. This technique also increased "working period" making the glass easier to manipulate. Technically, the term crystal is not applied to glass, as glass, by definition, lacks a crystalline structure. The use of the term lead crystal remains popular for historical and commercial reasons. It is retained from the Venetian word cristallo to describe the rock crystal imitated by Murano glassmakers. This naming convention has been maintained to the present day to describe decorative hollow-ware. Due to the potential health risks of lead that it contains, true lead crystal glassware is rare nowadays. One material that is commonly used to manufacture glassware and referred to as "crystal" is lead-free crystal glass. In lead-free crystal glass, barium oxide, zinc oxide, or potassium oxide are employed instead of lead oxide. Lead-free crystal has a similar refractive index to lead crystal, but it is lighter and it has less dispersive power. In the European Union, labeling of "crystal" products is regulated by Council Directive 69/493/EEC, which defines four categories, depending on the chemical composition and properties of the material. Only glass products containing at least 24% of lead oxide may be referred to as "lead crystal". Products with less lead oxide, or glass products with other metal oxides used in place of lead oxide, must be labeled "crystallin" or "crystal glass".
Lead styphnate (lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate, C6HN3O8Pb ), whose name is derived from styphnic acid, is an explosive used as a component in primer and detonator mixtures for less sensitive secondary explosives. Lead styphnate is only slightly soluble in water and methanol Samples of lead styphnate vary in color from yellow to gold, orange, reddish-brown, to brown. Lead styphnate is known in various polymorphs, hydrates, and basic salts. Normal lead styphnate monohydrate, monobasic lead styphnate, tribasic lead styphnate dihydrate, and pentabasic lead styphnate dehydrate as well as α, β polymorphs of lead styphnate exist. Two forms of lead styphnate are six-sided monohydrate crystals and small rectangular crystals. Lead styphnate is particularly sensitive to fire and the discharge of static electricity. When dry, it can readily detonate by static discharges from the human body. The longer and narrower the crystals, the more susceptible lead styphnate is to static electricity. Lead styphnate does not react with metals and is less sensitive to shock and friction than mercury fulminate or lead azide. It is stable in storage, even at elevated temperatures. As with other lead-containing compounds, lead styphnate is toxic owing to heavy metal poisoning.
Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people) especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland. Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power (popular sovereignty). It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history—and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture, and cultural revivals have been associated with nationalist movements. It also encourages pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism. Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism (national conservatism) or socialism (socialist nationalism) for example.Throughout history, people have had an attachment to their kin group and traditions, to territorial authorities and to their homeland, but nationalism did not become a widely-recognized concept until the 18th century. There are three paradigms for understanding the origins and basis of nationalism. Primordialism (perennialism) proposes that there have always been nations and that nationalism is a natural phenomenon. Ethnosymbolism explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon and stresses the importance of symbols, myths and traditions in the development of nations and nationalism. Modernism proposes that nationalism is a recent social phenomenon that needs the socio-economic structures of modern society to exist.There are various definitions of a "nation", however, which leads to different strands of nationalism. Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared ethnicity, heritage and culture, while civic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared citizenship, values and institutions, and is linked to constitutional patriotism. The adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has often been a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to mismatch between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in an anomie that nationalists seek to resolve. This anomie results in a society reinterpreting identity, retaining elements deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are (or are deemed to be) controlling them.National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.In practice, nationalism can be seen as positive or negative depending on context and individual outlook. Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Conversely, radical nationalism combined with racial hatred was also a key factor in the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. More recently, nationalism was an important driver of the controversial annexation of Crimea by Russia.
An international incident is a seemingly relatively small or limited action, incident or clash that results in a wider dispute between two or more nation-states. International incidents can arise from unanticipated actions involving citizens, government officials, or armed units of one or more nation-states, or out of a deliberate but small provocative action by espionage agents of one nation-state, or by terrorists, against another nation-state. An international incident usually arises during a time of relative peace between nation-states, and in general is, on the surface, an unexpected event. Conflicts that grow out of a series of escalating skirmishes between nation-states generally are not considered international incidents; however, terrorist actions can and often do become international incidents. However, historical views of past international incidents often reveal the incident was the flashpoint of a simmering conflict between nation-states, or organizations opposing nation-states. Wars have often been provoked by international incidents, and diplomatic efforts to prevent international incidents from growing into full-scale armed conflicts often have been unsuccessful. In the aftermath of the First World War, the League of Nations was established to help nations who were parties to an international incident achieve a solution to the incident through diplomatic means. Initially, the League of Nations had some success in working to find diplomatic solutions, however the failure of the League of Nations to prevent World War II resulted in the disbandment of the League of Nations in favor of the United Nations. As with its predecessor, the United Nations provides a means by which nations involved in an international incident can work to resolve the matter diplomatically rather than through the use of force. The term is also applied to various incidents that can disrupt international commerce, and to celebrities or other well-known people who commit gaffes or otherwise act inappropriately, causing the press and sometimes governments to criticize their actions. The International Court of Justice keeps a list of legal disputes between nation-states, many of which result from international incidents. The Royal Mail of the United Kingdom keeps a list on its website of current international incidents that might disrupt mail service. The incidents listed may or may not conform to the definitions given above.
plum, n. a mass of lead or other material, hung on a string, to show the perpendicular position: the perpendicular direction or position.—adj. perpendicular.—adv. perpendicularly.—v.t. to adjust by a plumb-line: to make perpendicular: to sound the depth of, as water by a plumb-line.—n. Plumb′-bob, a conoid-shaped metal weight at the end of a plumb-line.—adjs. Plum′bēan, Plum′bēous, consisting of, or resembling, lead: stupid; Plumb′ic, pertaining to, or obtained from, lead; Plumbif′erous, producing lead.—n. Plumb′ing, the art of casting and working in lead, &c.—adj. Plumb′less, incapable of being sounded.—ns. Plumb′-line, a line to which a mass of lead is attached to show the perpendicular: a plummet; Plumb′-rule, a narrow board with a plumb-line fastened to the top, used to determine a perpendicular. [Fr. plomb—L. plumbum, lead.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Territorial nationalism describes a form of nationalism based on the belief that all inhabitants of a particular territory should share a common national identity, regardless of their ethnic, linguistic, religious, cultural and other differences. Depending on the political or administrative status of a particular territory, territorial nationalism can be manifested on two basic levels, as territorial nationalism of distinctive sovereign states, or territorial nationalism of distinctive sub-sovereign regions (regional nationalism).Within sovereign nation states, territorial nationalism is manifested as a belief that all inhabitants of that nation owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption. According to territorial nationalism every individual must belong to a nation, but can choose which one to join. A sacred quality is sought in this nation and in the popular memories it evokes. Citizenship is idealized by a territorial nationalist. A criterion of a territorial nationalism is the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values and traditions of the population. Legal equality is essential for territorial nationalism.Because citizenship rather than ethnicity is idealized by territorial nationalism, it is argued by Athena S. Leoussi and Anthony D. Smith (in 2001) that the French Revolution was a territorial nationalistic uprising.Territorial nationalism is also connected to the concepts of Lebensraum, forced expulsion, ethnic cleansing and sometimes even genocide when one nation claims a certain imaginary territory and wants to get rid of other nations living on it. These territorial aspirations are part of the goal of an ethnically pure nation-state. This also sometimes leads to irredentism, since some nationalists demand that the state and nation are incomplete if an entire nation is not included into one single state, and thus aims to include members of its nations from a neighboring country. This thus often leads to ethnic conflict. Thomas Ambrosio argues: "If the leader of state A sends material support and/or actual troops into state B in the hopes of detaching state A's diaspora from state B, this would clearly be an indication of ethno-territorial nationalism".
nash′un-al, adj. pertaining to a nation: public: general: attached to one's own country.—n. Nationalisā′tion, the act of nationalising, as of railways, private property, &c.: the state of being nationalised.—v.t. Nat′ionalise, to make national: to make a nation of.—ns. Nat′ionalism; Nat′ionalist, one who strives after national unity or independence, esp. as in Ireland for more or less separation from Great Britain: an advocate of nationalism: National′ity, birth or membership in a particular country: separate existence as a nation: a nation, race of people: national character.—adv. Nat′ionally.—n. Nat′ionalness.—National air, anthem, the popular song by which a people's patriotic feelings are expressed; National Church, the church established by law in a country; National Convention, the sovereign assembly which sat from Sept. 21, 1792, to Oct. 26, 1795, after the abolition of monarchy in France; National debt, money borrowed by the government of a country and not yet paid; National flag, or ensign, the principal flag of a country; National guard, a force which took part in the French Revolution, first formed in 1789.
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Lead oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with formulas including lead and oxygen. Common lead oxides include: ⁕Lead oxide, PbO, litharge, massicot ⁕Lead oxide, Pb3O4, minium, red lead ⁕Lead dioxide, PbO2 Less common lead oxides are: ⁕Lead oxide, Pb2O3, lead sesquioxide ⁕Pb12O19 ⁕The so-called black lead oxide, which is a mixture of PbO and fine-powdered metal Pb and used in the production of lead acid batteries.
lead monoxide, PbO, obtained as a yellow amorphous powder, the fused and crystalline form of which is called litharge; lead ocher. It is used as a pigment; also, lead oxide yellow, as opposed to red lead, which is lead tetroxide PbO.
Lead market is a term used in innovation theory and denotes a country or region, which pioneers the successful adoption of an innovative design. It sends signalling effects to other "lag" markets, which in turn helps in triggering a process of global diffusion. Marian Beise, one of the foremost propounders of this theory as it has been understood so far, states: "Innovations that have been successful with local users in lead markets have a higher potential of becoming adopted world-wide than any other design preferred in other countries". Christoph Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal have described lead markets as "[…] markets that provide the stimuli for most global products and processes of a multinational company. Local innovations in such markets become useful elsewhere as the environmental characteristics that stimulated such innovations diffuse to other locations". To illustrate a lead market with some examples, Germany can be seen as a lead market for renewable energies and (premium) automobiles, while the United States would suit as a lead market for information technologies including e-commerce.Lead markets are thought to help reduce market and technology uncertainty in the process of new product development; and can be seen as an important driver for internationalization of research and development (R&D).Lead markets have been supposed to be characterized by factors such as high per capita income, high level of customer sophistication, and a competitive "eco-system". Such factors are subsumed into 5 "groups of advantages", namely demand advantage, market structure advantage, cost advantage, export advantage, and transfer advantage. Some scholars have also spoken of a regulation advantage, which emanates from favourable government policies (cf. Rennings and Smidt, 2010). Nevertheless, some other scholars have pointed towards regulation's impact on all other factors. For example, Tiwari and Herstatt (2012: 100) state: "[...] we consider it appropriate, not to treat regulation as a separate group since policy factors influence all other groups of advantages and are implicitly covered by them."The theory of lead markets has been criticized for not being "consistent and stringent". While conventional wisdom, due to its emphasis on customer affluence and sophistication as inducers of innovation, has tended to see lead markets exist in economically highly developed countries; recent research, notably by Rajnish Tiwari and Cornelius Herstatt of Hamburg University of Technology (e.g. Tiwari and Herstatt, 2011a, Tiwari and Herstatt, 2011b), has emphasized the need to update/extend the lead market model to adjust it to the changing ground realities in the face of globalization and sustained economic growth in developing nations. Using examples of several frugal innovations from India, and more specifically the case of small car industry in India's automotive sector, Rajnish Tiwari in his dissertation at Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) has proposed that lead markets can emerge in developing nations as well provided the market size enables significant economies of scale and the country's innovation system is endowed with the necessary technological capabilities. These two conditions, seen in conjunction with several other factors such as embeddedness in the international trade and access to open global innovation networks (OGINs), can in many instances compensate other typical drawbacks of developing countries, such as low purchasing power. As a consequence, Tiwari's dissertation has proposed to update the model to include technology advantage in the model, while combining the export and transfer advantages as one single group. Factors within the individual groups of advantages have been also update/modified. The evolution of India's small car sector has also provided some valuable insights into possible emergence of a lead market in a country. This model, if validated by further research, would help enable an ex ante analysis of lead markets, whereas so far mostly ex post, macroeconomic analyses have been the norm.
Nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history. However, it can also refer to people who share a common territory and government irrespective of their ethnic make-up; that is, a nation state. The word nation can more specifically refer to people of North American Indians. Nation carries varying meanings, and the connotation of the term has changed over time. The idea of a nation is a social reality that we have used to organize history. As Benedict Anderson argues in his book Imagined Communities, the nation is an imagined political community. It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion. Furthermore, it is a community because regardless of the actual inequality or exploitation that may exist in it, the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship. This is not to say that the concept is false, rather it was simply imaged and created by humans, and it is not something that necessarily exists in nature.
A voltaic battery whose positive and negative electrodes are formed or deposited by a current from a separate source of electricity by electrolysis. On disconnection the battery is ready to yield a current, in the reverse direction of that of the charging current. The usual type has lead plates on one of which lead binoxide and on the other of which spongy lead is formed. The lead binoxide seems to be the negative element, and it also acts as the depolarizer. The spongy lead is the positive electrode. The solution is dilute sulphuric acid of specific gravity 1.17. The action consists first in the oxidation of the spongy lead. The hydrogen set free by the reaction, and which by electrolytic transfer goes to the other plate, reduces the lead binoxide to protoxide. The sulphuric acid then attacks the oxides and converts the oxides into sulphates.
— The Standard Electrical Dictionary
Lead monoxide (also called Lead protoxide), PbO, obtained as a yellow amorphous powder, the fused and crystalline form of which is called litharge; lead ocher. It is used as a pigment. It is also called lead oxide yellow, as opposed to red lead, which is lead tetroxide Pb3O4.