# Synonyms containing **lina inverse**

### We've found **328** synonyms:

Inverse condemnation | Inverse condemnation Inverse condemnation is a term used in the law to describe a situation in which the government takes private property but fails to pay the compensation required by the 5th Amendment of the Constitution, so the property's owner has to sue to obtain the required just compensation. In some states the term also includes damaging of property as well as its taking. In inverse condemnation cases the owner is the plaintiff and that is why the action is called inverse – the order of parties is reversed, as compared to the usual procedure in direct condemnation where the government is the plaintiff who sues a defendant-owner to take his or her property. The taking can be physical (e.g., land seizure, flooding, retention of possession after a lease to the government expires, deprivation of access, removal of ground support) or it can be a regulatory taking (when regulations are so onerous that they make the regulated property unusable by its owner for any reasonable or economically viable purpose). The latter is the most controversial form of inverse condemnation. It can occur when the regulation of the property's use is so severe that it goes "too far," as Justice Holmes put it in Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393 (1922), and deprives the owner of the property's value, utility or marketability, denying him or her the benefits of property ownership thus accomplishing a constitutionally forbidden de facto taking without compensation. The Supreme Court of the United States has not elaborated on what "too far" is, and the doctrinal basis for its jurisprudence has been widely criticized as confused and inconsistent. But the court has articulated three situations in which inverse condemnation occurs. These are (a) physical seizure or occupation, (b) the reduction of the regulated property's utility or value to such an extent that it is no longer capable of economically viable use, and (c) where as a precondition to the issuance of a building permit, the government demands that the regulated owner convey property to the government even though there is no rational nexus between the owner's activity's impact on public resources and the owner's proposed regulated use, or where the extent of the exaction is not proportional to the effect of the owner's activities (Nollan v. California Coastal Commission and Dolan v. City of Tigard). Apart from these three situations known as per se regulatory takings, the decision whether or not a taking has occurred is made by judicial consideration of three factors: (a) the nature of the government regulation, (b) the economic impact of the regulation on the subject property, and (c) the extent to which the regulation interferes with the owner's reasonable, investment-backed expectations. This is known as the three-factor Penn Central test (after Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City where it was articulated). The Penn Central decision has been severely criticized by commentators on both sides of the "taking issue" controversy, because its "three-factor" approach is so vague that it enables judges to reach whatever result they prefer. It also makes it extremely difficult for lawyers to tell in advance of filing a lawsuit what facts will be deemed decisive by the court, and how to apply them. The problem is that the U.S. Supreme court has failed to articulate the elements of a cause of action in regulatory taking cases, offering its supposed inability to do so as the reason, and has offered only those "factors," without indicating what importance to ascribe to each, and how to determine whether they have been established. Railroads and other public utilities which are granted the power of condemnation (or eminent domain) by state statute, can be liable for inverse taking or where appropriate, when they take or damage private property when they act in the performance of their regulated activities. An inverse taking need not be a taking of land or rights in land (such as easements). It can be a taking of personal property (e.g. supplies for the army in wartime), intellectual property (patents and copyrights), as well as contracts. The trial of a typical inverse condemnation action is bifurcated. First, there is a bench trial to determine liability, and if the judge determines that a taking has occurred, there is a second (typically jury) trial to determine compensation. Some states (i.e., New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island) do not provide jury trials in such cases. The measure of compensation is the same as in direct condemnation actions in which the government concedes that a taking has occurred, and the sole issue is the amount of compensation. By statute, many states also provide for recovery of attorneys' and appraisers' fees in successful inverse condemnation actions. — Wikipedia |

Generalized inverse | Generalized inverse In mathematics, and in particular, algebra, a generalized inverse of an element x is an element y that has some properties of an inverse element but not necessarily all of them. Generalized inverses can be defined in any mathematical structure that involves associative multiplication, that is, in a semigroup. This article describes generalized inverses of a matrix A {\displaystyle A} . Formally, given a matrix A ∈ R n × m {\displaystyle A\in \mathbb {R} ^{n\times m}} and a matrix A g ∈ R m × n {\displaystyle A^{\mathrm {g} }\in \mathbb {R} ^{m\times n}} , A g {\displaystyle A^{\mathrm {g} }} is a generalized inverse of A {\displaystyle A} if it satisfies the condition A A g A = A . {\displaystyle AA^{\mathrm {g} }A=A.} The purpose of constructing a generalized inverse of a matrix is to obtain a matrix that can serve as an inverse in some sense for a wider class of matrices than invertible matrices. A generalized inverse exists for an arbitrary matrix, and when a matrix has a regular inverse, this inverse is its unique generalized inverse. — Wikipedia |

Inverse relation | Inverse relation In mathematics, the inverse relation of a binary relation is the relation that occurs when the order of the elements is switched in the relation. For example, the inverse of the relation 'child of' is the relation 'parent of'. In formal terms, if are sets and is a relation from X to Y then is the relation defined so that if and only if . In set-builder notation, . The notation comes by analogy with that for an inverse function. Although many functions do not have an inverse; every relation does have a unique inverse. Despite the notation and terminology, the inverse relation is not an inverse in the sense of group inverse; the unary operation that maps a relation to the inverse relation is however an involution, so it induces the structure of a semigroup with involution on the binary relations on a set, or more generally induces a dagger category on the category of relations as detailed below. As a unary operation, taking the inverse commutes however with the order-related operations of relation algebra, i.e. it commutes with union, intersection, complement etc. — Freebase |

Additive inverse | Additive inverse In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number a is the number that, when added to a, yields zero. This operation is also known as the opposite, sign change, and negation. For a real number, it reverses its sign: the opposite to a positive number is negative, and the opposite to a negative number is positive. Zero is the additive inverse of itself. The additive inverse of a is denoted by unary minus: −a. For example, the additive inverse of 7 is −7, because 7 + = 0, and the additive inverse of −0.3 is 0.3, because −0.3 + 0.3 = 0 . The additive inverse is defined as its inverse element under the binary operation of addition, which allows a broad generalization to mathematical objects other than numbers. As for any inverse operation, double additive inverse has no effect: − = x. 8 — Freebase |

Inverse Gaussian distribution | Inverse Gaussian distribution In probability theory, the inverse Gaussian distribution (also known as the Wald distribution) is a two-parameter family of continuous probability distributions with support on (0,∞). Its probability density function is given by f ( x ; μ , λ ) = λ 2 π x 3 exp ( − λ ( x − μ ) 2 2 μ 2 x ) {\displaystyle f(x;\mu ,\lambda )={\sqrt {\frac {\lambda }{2\pi x^{3}}}}\exp {\biggl (}-{\frac {\lambda (x-\mu )^{2}}{2\mu ^{2}x}}{\biggr )}} for x > 0, where μ > 0 {\displaystyle \mu >0} is the mean and λ > 0 {\displaystyle \lambda >0} is the shape parameter.As λ tends to infinity, the inverse Gaussian distribution becomes more like a normal (Gaussian) distribution. The inverse Gaussian distribution has several properties analogous to a Gaussian distribution. The name can be misleading: it is an "inverse" only in that, while the Gaussian describes a Brownian motion's level at a fixed time, the inverse Gaussian describes the distribution of the time a Brownian motion with positive drift takes to reach a fixed positive level. Its cumulant generating function (logarithm of the characteristic function) is the inverse of the cumulant generating function of a Gaussian random variable. To indicate that a random variable X is inverse Gaussian-distributed with mean μ and shape parameter λ we write X ∼ IG ( μ , λ ) {\displaystyle X\sim \operatorname {IG} (\mu ,\lambda )\,\!} . — Wikipedia |

Lina Inverse | Lina Inverse Lina Inverse (リナ・インバース, Rina Inbāsu) is the protagonist of and the only character that appears in all incarnations of the comic fantasy themed light novel, manga and anime series Slayers, where she is a young yet very powerful sorceress travelling the world in search of treasure and adventure. Lina has been consistently voiced by Megumi Hayashibara in Japanese. She is voiced by Lisa Ortiz in the English version of the TV series produced by Central Park Media and Funimation Entertainment, and by Cynthia Martinez in ADV Films-produced English version of the films and original video animation episodes. Slayers novels and anime are narrated by Lina herself from her point of view. Lina was one of the most popular anime characters of the late 1990s and has since retained a sizable fan following. There have been also characters based on or inspired by her in both Slayers and in other works. — Wikipedia |

Inversion | Inversion a peculiar method of transformation, in which a figure is replaced by its inverse figure. Propositions that are true for the original figure thus furnish new propositions that are true in the inverse figure. See Inverse figures, under Inverse — Webster Dictionary |

Multiplicative inverse | Multiplicative inverse In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1. The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a. For the multiplicative inverse of a real number, divide 1 by the number. For example, the reciprocal of 5 is one fifth, and the reciprocal of 0.25 is 1 divided by 0.25, or 4. The reciprocal function, the function f(x) that maps x to 1/x, is one of the simplest examples of a function which is its own inverse. The term reciprocal was in common use at least as far back as the third edition of Encyclopædia Britannica to describe two numbers whose product is 1; geometrical quantities in inverse proportion are described as reciprocall in a 1570 translation of Euclid's Elements. In the phrase multiplicative inverse, the qualifier multiplicative is often omitted and then tacitly understood. Multiplicative inverses can be defined over many mathematical domains as well as numbers. In these cases it can happen that ab ≠ ba; then "inverse" typically implies that an element is both a left and right inverse.−1−1−1 — Freebase |

Invertible matrix | Invertible matrix In linear algebra an n-by-n matrix A is called invertible if there exists an n-by-n matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication. If this is the case, then the matrix B is uniquely determined by A and is called the inverse of A, denoted by A−1. It follows from the theory of matrices that if for finite square matrices A and B, then also Non-square matrices do not have an inverse. However, in some cases such a matrix may have a left inverse or right inverse. If A is m-by-n and the rank of A is equal to n, then A has a left inverse: an n-by-m matrix B such that BA = I. If A has rank m, then it has a right inverse: an n-by-m matrix B such that AB = I. A square matrix that is not invertible is called singular or degenerate. A square matrix is singular if and only if its determinant is 0. Singular matrices are rare in the sense that if you pick a random square matrix over a continuous uniform distribution on its entries, it will almost surely not be singular. While the most common case is that of matrices over the real or complex numbers, all these definitions can be given for matrices over any commutative ring. However, in this case the condition for a square matrix to be invertible is that its determinant is invertible in the ring, which in general is a much stricter requirement than being nonzero. The conditions for existence of left-inverse resp. right-inverse are more complicated since a notion of rank does not exist over rings. — Freebase |

Infernal | Infernal Infernal is dance/pop group from Denmark, consisting of members Lina Rafn and Paw Lagermann. They made their Danish debut in 1997 with the release of the track "Sorti de L'enfer", and have gone on to international chart success in recent years. Their most successful single to date has been "From Paris to Berlin", which charted well in many European countries throughout 2006 and 2007. In addition to the original single, an alternate version was released in the UK titled "From London to Berlin", supporting England in the 2006 Football World Cup. Infernal have released four studio albums, with the 1998 debut album Infernal Affairs reaching double platinum sales in Denmark. Their mainstream breakthrough came with From Paris to Berlin from 2004, and the success continued with Electric Cabaret in 2008, certified with double platinum and platinum, respectively. Paw Lagermann and Lina Rafn have made a comeback in 2012 as a duo called Paw & Lina with the hit single "Stolt af mig selv?" — Freebase |

Inverse floating rate note | Inverse floating rate note An inverse floating rate note, or simply an inverse floater, is a type of bond or other type of debt instrument used in finance whose coupon rate has an inverse relationship to short-term interest rates (or its reference rate). With an inverse floater, as interest rates rise the coupon rate falls. The basic structure is the same as an ordinary floating rate note except for the direction in which the coupon rate is adjusted. These two structures are often used in concert. As short-term interest rates fall, both the market price and the yield of the inverse floater increase. This link often magnifies the fluctuation in the bond's price. However, in the opposite situation, when short-term interest rates rise, the value of the bond can drop significantly, and holders of this type of instrument may end up with a security that pays little interest and for which the market will pay very little. Thus, interest rate risk is magnified and contains a high degree of volatility. — Wikipedia |

Inverse semigroup | Inverse semigroup In group theory, an inverse semigroup (occasionally called an inversion semigroup) S is a semigroup in which every element x in S has a unique inverse y in S in the sense that x = xyx and y = yxy, i.e. a regular semigroup in which every element has a unique inverse. Inverse semigroups appear in a range of contexts; for example, they can be employed in the study of partial symmetries.(The convention followed in this article will be that of writing a function on the right of its argument, e.g. x f rather than f(x), and composing functions from left to right—a convention often observed in semigroup theory.) — Wikipedia |

Geomathematics | Geomathematics Geomathematics or Mathematical Geophysics is the application of mathematical intuition to solve problems in Geophysics. The most complicated problem in Geophysics is the solution of the three dimensional inverse problem, where observational constraints are used to infer physical properties. The inverse procedure is much more sophisticated than the normal direct computation of what should be observed from a physical system. The estimation procedure is often dubbed the inversion strategy (also called the inverse problem) as the procedure is intended to estimate from a set of observations the circumstances that produced them. The Inverse Process is thus the converse of the classical scientific method. — Wikipedia |

Additive Inverse Property | Additive Inverse Property The Additive Inverse Property is a Property in which the sum of two integers with the same absolute value will result in 0. The equation portraying the Additive Inverse Property is x+(-x)=0, so x-x=0. For example, 7+(-7) =0, so 7-7=0. — Editors Contribution |

Cross | Cross made in an opposite direction, or an inverse relation; mutually inverse; interchanged; as, cross interrogatories; cross marriages, as when a brother and sister marry persons standing in the same relation to each other — Webster Dictionary |