Synonyms containing magnifying-glass
We've found 2,733 synonyms:
glas, n. a combination of silica with some alkali or alkaline earth, such as lime, &c., used for window panes, mirrors, lenses, &c.: anything made of glass, esp. a drinking-vessel, a mirror, &c.: the quantity of liquid a glass holds: any fused substance like glass, with a vitreous fracture: (pl.) spectacles.—adj. made of glass.—v.t. to case in glass.—ns. Glass′-blow′er, one who blows and fashions glass; Glass′-blow′ing, the process of making glass, by taking a mass of glass reduced by heat to a viscid state, and inflating it; Glass′-coach, a coach for hire having glazed windows; Glass′-crab, the larval form of rock lobsters, &c., but formerly regarded as adults, and made into a genus or even family; Glass′-cut′ter; Glass′-cut′ting, the act or process of cutting, shaping, and ornamenting the surface of glass.—adj. Glass′-faced (Shak.), reflecting the sentiments of another, as in a mirror.—n. Glass′ful, the contents of a glass.—adj. Glass′-gaz′ing (Shak.), addicted to viewing one's self in a mirror.—ns. Glass′-grind′ing, the ornamenting of glass by rubbing with sand, emery, &c.; Glass′-house, a glass manufactory: a house made of glass.—adv. Glass′ily.—n. Glass′iness.—adj. Glass′-like.—ns. Glass′-paint′ing, the art of producing pictures on glass by means of staining it chemically; Glass′-pā′per, paper coated with finely pounded glass, and used like sand-paper; Glass′-soap, an oxide of manganese and other substances used by glass-blowers to remove colouring from glass; Glass′ware, articles made of glass; Glass′-work, articles made of glass; Glass′wort, a plant so called from its yielding soda, used in making glass.—adjs. Glass′y, made of or like glass; Glass′y-head′ed (Tenn.), having a bald, shining head.—ns. Cut′-glass, flint-glass shaped or ornamented by cutting or grinding on a wheel; Ground′-glass, any glass that has been depolished by a sand-blast, grinding, or etching with acids, so as to destroy its transparency; Plate′-glass, glass cast in large thick plates.—Live in a glass house=to be open to attack or retort.—Musical glasses (see Harmonica).—Water, or Soluble, glass, the soluble silicate of soda or of potash formed when silica is fused with an excess of alkali, used for hardening artificial stone, as a cement, and for rendering calico, &c., uninflammable. [A.S. glæs; Dut., Ger., and Sw. glas; cog. with glow, gleam, glance, glare.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Glass is a non-crystalline, often transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most often formed by rapid cooling (quenching) of the molten form; some glasses such as volcanic glass are naturally occurring. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. Soda-lime glass, containing around 70% silica, account for around 90% of manufactured glass. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, although silica-free glasses often have desirable properties for applications in modern communications technology. Some objects, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses, are so commonly made of silicate-based glass that they are simply called by the name of the material. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Archaeological evidence suggests glass-making dates back to at least 3,600 BCE in Mesopotamia, Egypt, or Syria. The earliest known glass objects were beads, perhaps created accidentally during metal-working or the production of faience. Due to its ease of formability into any shape, glass has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights and marbles. Glass can be coloured by adding metal salts or painted and printed with vitreous enamels, leading to its use in stained glass windows and other glass art objects. The refractive, reflective and transmission properties of glass make glass suitable for manufacturing optical lenses, prisms, and optoelectronics materials. Extruded glass fibres have application as optical fibres in communications networks, thermal insulating material when matted as glass wool so as to trap air, or in glass-fibre reinforced plastic (fibreglass).
A glass cutter is a tool used to make a shallow score in one surface of a piece of glass that is to be broken in two pieces. The scoring makes a split in the surface of the glass which encourages the glass to break along the score. Regular, annealed glass can be broken apart this way but not tempered glass as the latter tends to shatter rather than breaking cleanly into two pieces.A glass cutter may use a diamond to create the split, but more commonly a small cutting wheel made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide 4–6 mm in diameter with a V-shaped profile called a "hone angle" is used. The greater the hone angle of the wheel, the sharper the angle of the V and the thicker the piece of glass it is designed to cut. The hone angle on most hand-held glass cutters is 120°, though wheels are made as sharp as 154° for cutting glass as thick as 0.5 inches (13 mm). Their main drawback is that wheels with sharper hone angles will become dull more quickly than their more obtuse counterparts. The effective cutting of glass also requires a small amount of oil (kerosene is often used) and some glass cutters contain a reservoir of this oil which both lubricates the wheel and prevents it from becoming too hot: as the wheel scores, friction between it and the glass surface briefly generates intense heat, and oil dissipates this efficiently. When properly lubricated a steel wheel can give a long period of satisfactory service. However, tungsten carbide wheels have been proven to have a significantly longer life than steel wheels and offer greater and more reproducible penetration in scoring as well as easier opening of the scored glass. In the Middle Ages, glass was cut with a heated and sharply pointed iron rod. The red hot point was drawn along the moistened surface of the glass causing it to snap apart. Fractures created in this way were not very accurate and the rough pieces had to be chipped or "grozed" down to more exact shapes with a hooked tool called a grozing iron. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, starting in Italy, a diamond-tipped cutter became prevalent which allowed for more precise cutting. Then in 1869 the wheel cutter was developed by Samuel Monce of Bristol, Connecticut, which remains the current standard tool for most glass cutting.Large sheets of glass are usually cut with a computer-assisted CNC semi-automatic glass cutting table. These sheets are then broken out by hand into the individual sheets of glass (also known as "lites" in the glass industry).
Soda-lime glass, also called soda-lime-silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes, and glass containers for beverages, food, and some commodity items. Glass bakeware is often made of tempered soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glass is prepared by melting the raw materials, such as sodium carbonate, lime, dolomite, silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide, and small quantities of fining agents in a glass furnace at temperatures locally up to 1675 °C. The temperature is only limited by the quality of the furnace superstructure material and by the glass composition. Relatively inexpensive minerals such as trona, sand, and feldspar are usually used instead of pure chemicals. Green and brown bottles are obtained from raw materials containing iron oxide. The mix of raw materials is termed batch. Soda-lime glass is divided technically into glass used for windows, called flat glass, and glass for containers, called container glass. The two types differ in the application, production method, and chemical composition. Float glass has a higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide content than container glass, and a lower silica, calcium oxide, and aluminium oxide content. From this follows the slightly higher quality of container glass for chemical durability against water, which is required especially for storage of beverages and food.
Gorilla Glass is a brand of chemically strengthened glass developed and manufactured by Corning, now in its sixth generation, designed to be thin, light and damage-resistant. As a brand, Gorilla Glass is unique to Corning, but close equivalents exist, including AGC Inc. Dragontrail and Schott AG Xensation.The alkali-aluminosilicate sheet glass is used primarily as cover glass for portable electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable media players, portable computer displays, and television screens. It is manufactured in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, US; Asan, Korea; and Taiwan. The glass gains its surface strength, ability to contain flaws, and crack-resistance by being immersed in a proprietary, hot, potassium-salt, ion-exchange bath.Corning experimented with chemically strengthened glass in 1960, as part of a "Project Muscle" initiative. Within a few years they had developed a "muscled glass" marketed as Chemcor. The product was used until the early 1990s in commercial and industrial applications, including automotive, aviation and pharmaceutical uses, notably in approximately one hundred 1968 Dodge Dart and Plymouth Barracuda racing cars, where minimizing the vehicle's weight was essential. Experimentation was revived in 2005, investigating whether the glass could be made thin enough for use in consumer electronics. It was brought into commercial use when Apple asked Corning for a thin, toughened glass to be used in its new iPhone.In October 2017 some five billion devices globally contained Gorilla Glass. While dominating its market, Gorilla Glass faces varying competition from rivals such as Dragontrail and synthetic sapphire.
Lead glass is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass. Lead glass contains typically 18–40 weight% lead oxide, while modern lead crystal, historically also known as flint glass due to the original silica source, contains a minimum of 24% PbO. Lead glass is desirable owing to its decorative properties. Originally discovered by Englishman George Ravenscroft in 1674, the technique of adding lead oxide improved the appearance of the glass and made it easier to melt using sea-coal as a furnace fuel. This technique also increased "working period" making the glass easier to manipulate. Technically, the term crystal is not applied to glass, as glass, by definition, lacks a crystalline structure. The use of the term lead crystal remains popular for historical and commercial reasons. It is retained from the Venetian word cristallo to describe the rock crystal imitated by Murano glassmakers. This naming convention has been maintained to the present day to describe decorative hollow-ware. Due to the potential health risks of lead that it contains, true lead crystal glassware is rare nowadays. One material that is commonly used to manufacture glassware and referred to as "crystal" is lead-free crystal glass. In lead-free crystal glass, barium oxide, zinc oxide, or potassium oxide are employed instead of lead oxide. Lead-free crystal has a similar refractive index to lead crystal, but it is lighter and it has less dispersive power. In the European Union, labeling of "crystal" products is regulated by Council Directive 69/493/EEC, which defines four categories, depending on the chemical composition and properties of the material. Only glass products containing at least 24% of lead oxide may be referred to as "lead crystal". Products with less lead oxide, or glass products with other metal oxides used in place of lead oxide, must be labeled "crystallin" or "crystal glass".
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Modern vernacular usage has often extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic leadlight and objets d'art created from came glasswork exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany. As a material stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln. Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason stained glass windows have been described as 'illuminated wall decorations'.
Shading coefficient (SC) is a measure of thermal performance of a glass unit (panel or window) in a building. It is the ratio of solar gain (due to direct sunlight) passing through a glass unit to the solar energy which passes through 3mm Clear Float Glass. It is an indicator of how well the glass is thermally insulating (shading) the interior when there is direct sunlight on the panel or window. The shading coefficient depends on the color of glass and degree of reflectivity. It also depends on the type of reflective metal oxides for the case of reflective glass. Sputter-coated reflective and/or sputter-coated low-emissivity glasses tend to have lower SC compared to the same pyrolitically-coated reflective and/or low-emissivity glass. The value ranges between 1.00 to 0.00, but experiments show that the value of the SC is typically between 0.98~0.10. The lower the rating, the less solar heat is transmitted through the glass, and the greater its shading ability. Solar properties play a significant role in the selection of glass, especially in regions or cardinal directions with high solar exposure. It becomes less significant in situations where direct sunlight is not a major factor (e.g., windows completely shaded by overhangs). Window design methods have moved away from Shading Coefficient to Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), which is defined as the fraction of incident solar radiation that actually enters a building through the entire window assembly as heat gain (not just the glass portion). Though shading coefficient is still mentioned in manufacturer product literature and some industry computer software, it is no longer mentioned as an option in industry-specific texts or model building codes. Industry technical experts recognized the limitations of SC and pushed towards SHGC before the early 1990s. A conversion from SC to SHGC is not necessarily straightforward, as they each take into account different heat transfer mechanisms and paths (window assembly vs. glass-only). To perform an approximate conversion from SC to SHGC, multiply the SC value by 0.87.
vit′rē-us, adj. glassy: pertaining to, consisting of, or like glass.—ns. Vitreos′ity, Vit′reousness; Vitres′cence.—adj. Vitres′cent, tending to become glass.—n. Vit′reum, the vitreous humour of the eye.—adj. Vit′ric.—ns. Vit′rics, glassy materials: the history of glass and its manufacture; Vitrifac′tion, Vitrificā′tion, act, process, or operation of vitrifying, or converting into glass; Vitrifac′ture, the manufacture of glass.—adjs. Vit′rifiable, that may be vitrified or turned into glass; Vit′rified.—ns.pl. Vit′rified-forts, -walls, certain ancient Scottish, French, &c. forts or walls in which the silicious stone has been vitrified by fire, whether by intention or accident is uncertain.—adj. Vit′riform, having the form of glass.—v.t. Vit′rify, to make into glass.—v.i. to become glass.—ns. Vitrī′na, a genus of land molluscs forming a connecting-link between the slugs and true snails—the glass-snail; Vit′rine, a show-case made of glass and used to protect delicate articles. [L. vitrum, glass—vidēre, to see.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Sea glass and beach glass are similar but come from two different types of water. "Sea glass" is physically and chemically weathered glass found on beaches along bodies of salt water. These weathering processes produce natural frosted glass. "Genuine sea glass" can be collected as a hobby and is used for decoration, most commonly in jewelry. "Beach glass" comes from fresh water and in most cases has a different pH balance and a less frosted appearance than sea glass. Sea glass takes 20 to 40 years, and sometimes as much as 100 years, to acquire its characteristic texture and shape. It is also colloquially referred to as "Drift glass" from the longshore drift process that forms the smooth edges. In practice, the two terms are used interchangeably.
Glass is an amorphous solid material that exhibits a glass transition, which is the reversible transition in amorphous materials from a hard and relatively brittle state into a molten or rubber-like state. Glasses are typically brittle and can be optically transparent. The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica plus sodium oxide from soda ash, lime, and several minor additives. Often, the term glass is used in a restricted sense to refer to this specific use. From the 19th century, various types of fancy glass started to become significant branches of the decorative arts. Objects made out of glass include not only traditional objects such as vessels, paperweights, marbles, beads, but an endless range of sculpture and installation art as well. Colored glass is often used, though sometimes the glass is painted, innumerable examples exist of the use of stained glass. In science, however, the term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense, including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. In this wider sense, glasses can be made of quite different classes of materials: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications polymer glasses are a lighter alternative to traditional silica glasses.
Tiffany glass refers to the many and varied types of glass developed and produced from 1878 to 1933 at the Tiffany Studios, by Louis Comfort Tiffany and a team of other designers, including Clara Driscoll. In 1865, Tiffany traveled to Europe, and in London he visited the Victoria and Albert Museum, whose extensive collection of Roman and Syrian glass made a deep impression on him. He admired the coloration of medieval glass and was convinced that the quality of contemporary glass could be improved upon. In his own words, the "Rich tones are due in part to the use of pot metal full of impurities, and in part to the uneven thickness of the glass, but still more because the glass maker of that day abstained from the use of paint". Tiffany was an interior designer, and in 1878 his interest turned towards the creation of stained glass, when he opened his own studio and glass foundry because he was unable to find the types of glass that he desired in interior decoration. His inventiveness both as a designer of windows and as a producer of the material with which to create them was to become renowned. Tiffany wanted the glass itself to transmit texture and rich colors and he developed a type of glass he called Favrile.
A glass cutter is a tool used to make a shallow score in one surface of a piece of glass that is to be broken in two pieces. The scoring makes a split in the surface of the glass which encourages the glass to break along the score. Regular, annealed glass can be broken apart this way but not tempered glass, since it shatters rather than breaking cleanly into two pieces. A glass cutter may use a diamond to create the split or more commonly a small cutting wheel is used made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide 4-6 mm in diameter, with its cutting edge ground to a V-shaped profile. Some glass cutters hold a small amount of cutting oil, which both lubricates the wheel and prevents the split in the glass from closing. When properly lubricated a steel wheel can give a long period of satisfactory service. However, tungsten carbide wheels have a significantly longer life than steel wheels and offer other advantages in use, such as greater and more reproducible penetration in cutting and consequently easier parting of the glass. In the Middle Ages glass was cut with a tool which was nothing more than a sharply pointed rod of iron, heated to a high temperature. The red hot point was drawn along the moistened surface of the glass causing it to snap apart. The fracture was not very accurate and the rough piece had to be chipped or grozed down to the exact shape with the help of a hooked tool called a grozing iron. The present day Steel Wheel Cutter, which is almost universally used, was invented in 1869 by Samuel Monce in Bristol. Connecticut.
Tempered or toughened glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the interior into tension. Such stresses cause the glass, when broken, to crumble into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards as plate glass (a.k.a. annealed glass) does. The granular chunks are less likely to cause injury. As a result of its safety and strength, tempered glass is used in a variety of demanding applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower doors, architectural glass doors and tables, refrigerator trays, mobile screen protectors, as a component of bulletproof glass, for diving masks, and various types of plates and cookware.
Glass tubes are mainly cylindrical hollow-wares. Their special shape combined with the huge variety of glass types (like borosilicate, flint, aluminosilicate, soda lime, lead or quartz glass), allows the use of glass tubing in many applications. For example, laboratory glassware, lighting applications, solar thermal systems and pharmaceutical packaging to name the largest.In the past, scientists constructed their own laboratory apparatus prior to the ubiquity of interchangeable ground glass joints. Today, commercially available parts connected by ground glass joints are preferred; where specialized glassware are required, they are made to measure using commercially available glass tubes by specialist glassblowers. For example, a Schlenk line is made of two large glass tubes, connected by stopcocks and smaller glass tubes, which are further connected to plastic hoses.