Synonyms containing maxilla (upper jaw)

We've found 5,165 synonyms:

Jaw

Jaw

jaw, n. the bones of the mouth in which the teeth are set: the mouth: anything like a jaw: (slang) talkativeness, scolding.—v.i. (slang) to scold.—ns. Jaw′bone, the bone of the jaw, in which the teeth are set; Jaw′-break′er (slang), a word hard to pronounce.—adj. Jawed, having jaws: denoting the appearance of the jaws, as lantern-jawed.—n. Jaw′fall, a falling of the jaw: (fig.) depression of spirits.—adj. Jaw′-fall′en, depressed in spirits: dejected.—ns. Jaw′-foot, a foot-jaw, maxilliped; Jaw′-lē′ver, an instrument for opening the mouth of a horse or cow to admit medicine; Jaw′-tooth, one of the double teeth, a grinder or molar.—Break-jaw word, a very long word, or one hard to pronounce; Hold one's jaw, to cease from talking or scolding. [Old spelling chaw, akin to chew.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

cavalry and artillery horse

cavalry and artillery horse

Horses generally make in a minute, at ordinary pace, 120 steps, and they cover 110 yards; at a trot, 180 steps, covering 220 yards; and at a gallop, 100 steps or strides, covering 352 yards; from which it would appear that the length of the stride at the ordinary pace is about 0.917 yard, and that the velocity corresponds to about 1.74 yards per second; and at a trot the stride is about 1.28 yards and the speed about 3.68 yards per second; and at a gallop the stride is about 3.52 yards, with a speed of about 5.87 yards per second. A good horse carrying a weight of 225 pounds, can travel, without over-exertion, 25 miles in a day of from seven to eight hours; his speed in this case would be between 1.75 and 1.53 yards per second. The weight of an average-sized horse is about from 900 to 1350 pounds. The age of the horse is determined by the appearance of the teeth, which vary according to the number of years the animal has attained, and may be easily understood by a slight attention to the subject; the number, quality, and size of the teeth indicating the respective ages. The lower front teeth or nippers are those by which the age of a colt is usually determined. At two years old these teeth will be complete; that is to say, the colt will have a full set, six in number, of milch-teeth. Between two and three years old the two centre teeth are displaced, and two permanent teeth succeed them, easily distinguished from colt’s teeth by being broader, larger, and having a dark cavity in the centre of the upper surface. At three years old the colt will have in the lower jaw two permanent and four colt’s teeth; between the third and fourth year the next pair of incisor teeth will be shed, and permanent teeth succeed them. At four years old there will be four permanent teeth in the centre, and two colt’s teeth at each corner of the lower jaw. Between the fourth and fifth year the last remaining colt’s nipper, or corner tooth, will be cast; and, if a horse or gelding, the tushes, four in number, will show themselves, two in the upper and two in the lower jaw. At five years old the horse will have a full or complete set of permanent teeth in the upper and lower jaws; for the same change that takes place in the lower is developed in the upper jaw also. The colt at this age takes the name of horse, and is supposed to be equal to all the laborious duties expected from him. Although we can no longer judge of his age by the shifting or shedding of his teeth, we can form a tolerably correct conclusion from other appearances of them. At six years old the dark oval-shaped mark in the centre of the two front nippers, usually called by horsemen “the bean,” will be nearly or quite worn away; the tushes higher and stronger, and the cavities of the interior part of the tooth more filled; the two corner nippers level with the others, and equally developed. At seven years old the marks in the second pair of nippers are filled up, and the tushes become more round externally and internally. At eight years old the marks in the corner nippers are worn out, and the tushes more round and blunt. From this age the animal is said to be, in horse phraseology, “past knowledge”; and although a tolerably correct opinion may be formed for many years to come by the appearance of the upper jaw and other prognostics, still they cannot be implicitly relied on. It often occurs at a much earlier period that the best judges of age are deceived by the untimely structural alteration of the teeth, produced by mechanical or pathological causes, such as crib-biting, biting the rack or manger, eating hard food, etc. Horses used for cavalry in the United States are selected with regard to climate, the American horse east of the Rocky Mountains, and what is known as the Mexican or bronco, west of the Rocky Mountains; the power of endurance of the latter being much more than that of the former, they are better adapted to the rugged, arid country that an American cavalry soldier has to travel over on the western frontier. For artillery large, strong American horses are used. A horse occupies a space in the ranks of a front of 40 inches, a depth of 10 feet; in a stall, from 31⁄2 to 41⁄2 feet front; at picket 3 feet by 9. Cavalry horses usually charge at the rate of 24 miles per hour, or one mile in 21⁄2 minutes. See Pack and Draught Horses.

— Military Dictionary and Gazetteer

Maxilla

Maxilla

The maxilla is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. This is similar to the mandible, which is also a fusion of two halves at the mandibular symphysis. Sometimes, the maxilla is called "upper maxilla," with the mandible being the "lower maxilla." Conversely, in birds the upper jaw is often called "upper mandible."

— Freebase

Jaw jerk reflex

Jaw jerk reflex

The jaw jerk reflex or the masseter reflex is a stretch reflex used to test the status of a patient's trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) and to help distinguish an upper cervical cord compression from lesions that are above the foramen magnum. The mandible—or lower jaw—is tapped at a downward angle just below the lips at the chin while the mouth is held slightly open. In response, the masseter muscles will jerk the mandible upwards. Normally this reflex is absent or very slight. However, in individuals with upper motor neuron lesions the jaw jerk reflex can be quite pronounced. The jaw jerk reflex can be classified as a dynamic stretch reflex. As with most other reflexes, the response to the stimulus is monosynaptic, with sensory neurons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus sending axons to the trigeminal motor nucleus, which in turn innervates the masseter. This reflex is used to judge the integrity of the upper motor neurons projecting to the trigeminal motor nucleus. Both the sensory and motor aspects of this reflex are through CN V. It is not part of a standard neurological examination. It is performed when there are other signs of damage to the trigeminal nerve. The clinical presentation of cervical spondylotic myelopathy can be similar to multiple sclerosis (MS) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), however, a hyperactive jaw reflex suggests the pathology is above the foramen magnum. In other words, a normal jaw jerk reflex points the diagnosis toward cervical spondylotic myelopathy and away from MS or ALS.

— Wikipedia

Crocodile

Crocodile

Crocodiles or true crocodiles are large aquatic tetrapods that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodylinae, in which all its members are considered true crocodiles, is classified as a biological subfamily. A broader sense of the term crocodile, Crocodylidae, that includes the tomistoma, was excluded in this article since new genetic studies reveal the possibility of tomistoma as a close relative of the gharial. This article applies the term crocodile only to the species within the subfamily of Crocodylinae. The term is sometimes used even more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia: which includes all members of Crocodylidae, including the tomistoma, the alligators and caimans and the gharials, and the rest of Crocodylomorpha, which includes all of the prehistoric crocodile relatives and ancestors. Although they appear to be similar to the untrained eye, crocodiles, alligators and the gharial belong to seperate biological families. The gharial having a narrow snout is easier to distinguish, while morphological differences are more difficult to spot in crocodiles and alligators. The most obvious external differences are visible in the head with crocodiles having narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators and caimans. Another obvious trait is the upper and lower jaws of the crocodiles are the same width, and teeth in the lower jaw fall along the edge or outside the upper jaw when the mouth is closed; therefore all teeth are visible unlike an alligator; which possesses small depressions in the upper jaw where the lower teeth fit into. Also when the crocodile's mouth is closed, the large fourth tooth in the lower jaw fits into a constriction in the upper jaw. For hard-to-distinguish specimens, the protruding tooth is the most reliable feature to define the family, the species belongs to. Crocodiles have more webbing on the toes of the hind feet and can better tolerate saltwater due to specialized salt glands for filtering out salt, which are present but non-functioning in alligators. Another trait that separates crocodiles from other crocodilians, are the much higher levels of aggression. All reptiles are all scaled diapsids, which are divided into two groups: crocodilians are archosaurs, along with birds and the extinct dinosaurs, while other reptiles are lepidosaurs.

— Freebase

Angular bone

Angular bone

The angular is a large bone in the lower jaw of amphibians and reptiles, which is connected to all other lower jaw bones: the dentary, the splenial, the suprangular, and the articular. It is homologous to the tympanic bone bone in mammals, due to the incorporation of several jaw bones into the mammalian middle ear early in mammal evolution. In therapsids, the lower jaw is made up of the dentary and a group of smaller "postdentary" bones near the jaw joint. As the dentary increased in size over million of years, two of these postdentary bones, the articular and angular, became increasingly reduced and the dentary eventually made direct contact with the upper jaw. These postdentary bones, even before their articular function was lost, probably transmitted sound vibrations to the stapes and, in some therapsids, a bent plate that might have supported a membrane capable of detecting vibrations developed on the angular. Eventually, it developed into the ectotympanic ring which supports the tympanic membrane in the ears of modern mammals.

— Freebase

upper left

upper left

Yes, you are missing the best definition as it is meant to be...! Upper left, think about it, what part of your body "(organ)" is upper left...? It's your" ( HEART ) " I'm not sure if this term came from prison, but I do know, when I got released from prison, all the fellas, including the guards, Pastor, pounding their right hand fist to their upper left where the heart is and verbally saying upper left = LOVE, WE LOVE YOU...! I have tears in my eyes as I'm writing this...! God bless you all I hope this answer brings joy and happiness to all, UPPER LEFT...!

— Editors Contribution

upper left

upper left

Yes, you are missing the best definition as it is meant to be...! Upper left, think about it, what part of your body "(organ)" is upper left...? It's your" ( HEART ) " I'm not sure if this term came from prison, but I do know, when I got released from prison, all the fellas, including the guards, Pastor, pounding their right hand fist to their upper left where the heart is and verbally saying upper left = LOVE, WE LOVE YOU...! I have tears in my eyes as I'm writing this...! God bless you all I hope this answer brings joy and happiness to all, UPPER LEFT...!

— Editors Contribution

Mandible

Mandible

In vertebrates, the mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is a bone forming the skull with the cranium. In lobe-finned fishes and the early fossil tetrapods, the bone homologous to the mandible of mammals is merely the largest of several bones in the lower jaw. In such animals, it is referred to as the dentary bone, and forms the body of the outer surface of the jaw. It is bordered below by a number of splenial bones, while the angle of the jaw is formed by a lower angular bone and a suprangular bone just above it. The inner surface of the jaw is lined by a prearticular bone, while the articular bone forms the articulation with the skull proper. Finally a set of three narrow coronoid bones lie above the prearticular bone. As the name implies, the majority of the teeth are attached to the dentary, but there are commonly also teeth on the coronoid bones, and sometimes on the prearticular as well. This complex primitive pattern has, however, been simplified to various degrees in the great majority of vertebrates, as bones have either fused or vanished entirely. In teleosts, only the dentary, articular, and angular bones remain, while in living amphibians, the dentary is accompanied only by the prearticular, and, in salamanders, one of the coronoids. The lower jaw of reptiles has only a single coronoid and splenial, but retains all the other primitive bones except the prearticular and the periosteum.

— Freebase

Dilophosaurus

Dilophosaurus

Dilophosaurus ( dy-LOHF-o-SOR-əs) is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now North America during the Early Jurassic, about 193 million years ago. Three skeletons were discovered in northern Arizona in 1940, and the two best preserved were collected in 1942. The most complete specimen became the holotype of a new species in the genus Megalosaurus, named M. wetherilli by Samuel P. Welles in 1954. Welles found a larger skeleton belonging to the same species in 1964. Realizing it bore crests on its skull, he assigned the species to the new genus Dilophosaurus in 1970, as Dilophosaurus wetherilli. The genus name means "two-crested lizard", and the species name honors John Wetherill, a Navajo councilor. Further specimens have since been found, including an infant. Footprints have also been attributed to the animal, including resting traces. Another species, Dilophosaurus sinensis from China, was named in 1993, but was later found to belong to the genus Sinosaurus. At about 7 meters (23 ft) in length, with a weight of about 400 kilograms (880 lb), Dilophosaurus was one of the earliest large predatory dinosaurs, though it was smaller than some later theropods. It was slender and lightly built, and the skull was proportionally large, but delicate. The snout was narrow, and the upper jaw had a gap or kink below the nostril. It had a pair of longitudinal, plate-shaped crests on its skull, similar to a cassowary with two crests. The mandible was slender and delicate at the front, but deep at the back. The teeth were long, curved, thin, and compressed sideways. Those in the lower jaw were much smaller than those of the upper jaw. Most of the teeth had serrations at their front and back edges. The neck was long, and its vertebrae were hollow, and very light. The arms were powerful, with a long and slender upper arm bone. The hands had four fingers: the first was short but strong and bore a large claw, the two following fingers were longer and slenderer with smaller claws, and the fourth was vestigial. The thigh bone was massive, the feet were stout, and the toes bore large claws. Dilophosaurus is a member of the family Dilophosauridae along with Dracovenator, a group placed between the Coelophysidae and later theropods. Dilophosaurus would have been active and bipedal, and may have hunted large animals; it could also have fed on smaller animals and fish. The function of the crests is unknown; they were too weak for battle, but may have been used in visual display, such as species recognition and sexual selection. It may have grown rapidly, attaining a growth rate of 30 to 35 kilograms (66 to 77 lb) per year early in life. The holotype specimen had multiple paleopathologies, including healed injuries and signs of a developmental anomaly. Dilophosaurus is known from the Kayenta Formation, and lived alongside dinosaurs such as Megapnosaurus and Sarahsaurus. Dilophosaurus was featured in the novel Jurassic Park and its movie adaptation, wherein it was given the fictional abilities to spit venom and expand a cowl on its neck, as well as being smaller than the real animal. It was designated as the state dinosaur of Connecticut in 2017.

— Wikipedia

Pipe wrench

Pipe wrench

A pipe wrench is any of several types of wrench that are designed to turn threaded pipe and pipe fittings for assembly (tightening) or disassembly (loosening). The Stillson wrench, or Stillson-pattern wrench, is the usual form of pipe wrench, especially in North America. The Stillson name is that of the original patent holder, who licensed the design to a number of manufacturers. The patent expired decades ago. Another type of wrench often used on pipes, the plumber wrench, is also called a pipe wrench in some places. The Stillson wrench is an adjustable wrench (spanner) with hardened serrated teeth on its jaws. The hard teeth bite into the softer metal of the round pipe, and provide the grip needed to turn a pipe, even against fair resistance. The design of the adjustable jaw, which permits a certain amount of intentional play out of square, allows it to bind on the pipe, with forward pressure on the handle pulling the jaws tighter. Two leaf springs, above and below the knurled adjusting knob, help unlock the jaw when pressure on the handle of the wrench is released. Pipe wrenches are not intended for regular use on hex nuts or other fittings. However, if a hex nut becomes rounded (stripped) so that it cannot be moved by standard wrenches, a pipe wrench can be used to free the bolt or nut, because the pipe wrench is designed to bite into rounded metal surfaces. Pipe wrenches are classified by the length of the handle. They are generally available in any size from as small as 3 inches (80 mm) up to 48 inches (1,200 mm) or larger. They are usually made of cast steel. Today, aluminium might be used to construct the body of the wrench, although the teeth and jaw remain steel. Teeth and jaw kits (which also contain adjustment rings and springs) can be bought to repair broken wrenches, because that can be cheaper than buying a new one. Repairing a high-quality wrench can be more economical (taking into account the total cost of ownership) than either buying a new high-quality wrench or buying cheap wrenches repeatedly.

— Wikipedia

Temporomandibular joint

Temporomandibular joint

The temporomandibular joint is the joint of the jaw and is frequently referred to as TMJ. There are two TMJs, one on each side, working in unison. The name is derived from the two bones which form the joint: the upper temporal bone which is part of the cranium, and the lower jaw bone called the mandible. The unique feature of the TMJs is the articular disc. The disc is composed of fibrocartilagenous tissue which is positioned between the two bones that form the joint. The TMJs are one of the few synovial joints in the human body with an articular disc, another being the sternoclavicular joint. The disc divides each joint into two. The lower joint compartment formed by the mandible and the articular disc is involved in rotational movement—this is the initial movement of the jaw when the mouth opens. The upper joint compartment formed by the articular disk and the temporal bone is involved in translational movement—this is the secondary gliding motion of the jaw as it is opened widely. The part of the mandible which mates to the under-surface of the disc is the condyle and the part of the temporal bone which mates to the upper surface of the disk is the glenoid fossa.

— Freebase

Mandible

Mandible

the bone, or principal bone, of the lower jaw; the inferior maxilla; -- also applied to either the upper or the lower jaw in the beak of birds

— Webster Dictionary

maxillofacial

maxillofacial

of or relating to the upper jaw and face (particularly with reference to specialized surgery of the maxilla)

— Princeton's WordNet

Maxillary

Maxillary

maks′il-ar-i, adj. pertaining to the jawbone or jaw.—n. a maxillary bone, or maxilla.—n. Maxill′a, a jawbone.—adjs. Maxillif′erous; Maxill′iform.—n. Maxill′ipede, in crustacea, one of those limbs serving both for mastication and locomotion. [L. maxilla, jawbone.]

— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary

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