Synonyms containing novel therapeutic technologies
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The therapeutic index is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes death or toxicity. Quantitatively, it is the ratio given by the lethal or toxic dose divided by the therapeutic dose. In animal studies, the therapeutic index is the lethal dose of a drug for 50% of the population divided by the minimum effective dose for 50% of the population. Lethality is not determined in human clinical trials; instead, the dose that produces a toxicity in 50% of the population is used to calculate the therapeutic index. While the lethal dose is important to determine in animal studies, there are usually severe toxicities that occur at sublethal doses in humans, and these toxicities often limit the maximum dose of a drug. A higher therapeutic index is preferable to a lower one: a patient would have to take a much higher dose of such a drug to reach the lethal/toxic threshold than the dose taken to elicit the therapeutic effect. in animal studies, or for humans, Generally, a drug or other therapeutic agent with a narrow therapeutic range may have its dosage adjusted according to measurements of the actual blood levels achieved in the person taking it. This may be achieved through therapeutic drug monitoring protocols.
The social novel, also known as the social problem (or social protest) novel, is a "work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel". More specific examples of social problems that are addressed in such works include poverty, conditions in factories and mines, the plight of child labor, violence against women, rising criminality, and epidemics because of over-crowding, and poor sanitation in cities.Terms like thesis novel, propaganda novel, industrial novel, working-class novel and problem novel are also used to describe this type of novel; a recent development in this genre is the young adult problem novel. It is also referred to as the sociological novel. The social protest novel is a form of social novel which places an emphasis on the idea of social change, while the proletarian novel is a political form of the social protest novel which may emphasize revolution. While early examples are found in 18th century England, social novels have been written throughout Europe and the United States.
Headquartered in Rockville, MD, Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (formerly Shire Laboratories) is a specialty pharmaceuticals company that has a broad portfolio of proven and patented drug delivery technologies. Among its key technologies are ProScreen® and OptiScreen® for lead selection and formulation optimization, Microtrol®, Solutrol® and EnSoTrol®, its oral controlled release technologies, and AvertSM, its reduced abuse potential technology. Supernus will focus on developing differentiated products for targeted specialty therapeutic areas on its own and in partnership with other pharmaceutical companies. The company's portfolio of technologies covers the areas of: Predictive oral bioavailability evaluation using ProScreen®, ProPhile® and RADARSM Oral bioavailability enhancement including solubility enhancement, permeation enhancement, and efflux and protease protection. The OptiScreen® technology platform is designed to select enhancers and build novel formulations (ie: Emutrol™ to enhance oral bioavailability Oral controlled release including Microtrol®XR, Microtrol®PR, Microtrol®DR, Solutrol®, and EnSoTrol®, all of which are proven and patented technologies Reduced abuse potential via application of Avert for products containing DEA scheduled substances The pharmaceutical marketplace continually reinforces its preference for the convenience of orally administered products. In fact, over 70% of all pharmaceutical products are administered via the oral route. The advent of high throughput discovery techniques has taken drug discovery to new heights and has increased the number of drug candidates but has done little to address the inherent need for candidates to be orally administered. Supernus' ProScreen®, ProPhile®, RADARSM and OptiScreen® programs are comprised of proprietary techniques for identifying and overcoming potential barriers to oral administration. This enables development of promising candidates that may otherwise be abandoned and optimization of delivery for known entities. ProScreen® is a predictive screen for candidates that warrant oral delivery; ProPhile® is a suite of in silico modeling tools that enables multivariate analysis and PK prediction; and OptiScreen® is a technology for formulation optimization leading to oral bioavailability enhancement. Many candidates also require customized release profiles in order to more effectively address the indication of interest or minimize unwanted side effects that may be related to Cmax or patient to patient variability. Supernus possesses an array of proven and patented controlled release technology platforms to address the specific need of the molecule. More specifically, Microtrol®XR, Microtrol®PR, Microtrol®DR, Solutrol®, and EnSoTrol® provide Supernus’ partners access to technologies in the three technological categories for oral controlled release. The broad based array of technologies makes Supernus Pharmaceuticals the leader in oral controlled release while also maximizing its partners’ chance of success. RADARSM is a platform recently launched by Supernus Pharmaceuticals that compliments its existing technology platforms. When evaluating whether a molecule is a viable candidate for oral controlled release it is important to know the degree to which it is absorbed along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. A significant number of compounds possess divergent absorption profiles in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, thus increasing the complexity or completely precluding development of a controlled or extended release dosage form. It is of substantial value to determine relative bioavailability of a molecule by region of the gastrointestinal tract before initiating a fully integrated development program for a controlled or extended release dosage form. Supernus created AvertSM and RADARSM as a platform to reduce abuse...
Therapeutic jurisprudence ("TJ") studies law as a social force (or agent) which inevitably gives rise to unintended consequences, which may be either beneficial (therapeutic) or harmful (anti-therapeutic). These consequences flow from the operation of legal rules or legal procedures—or from the behavior of legal actors (such as lawyers and judges). TJ researchers and practitioners typically make use of social science methods and data to study the extent to which a legal rule or practice affects the psychological well-being of the people it affects, and then explore ways in which anti-therapeutic consequences can be reduced, and therapeutic consequences enhanced, without breaching due process requirements.
Remune is the first therapeutic HIV vaccine based on the killed whole virus approach. Remune was initially invented by Jonas Salk in 1987 and is now being developed by Immune Response BioPharma, Inc. (IRBP) Remune is a therapeutic HIV/AIDS vaccine that has completed over 25 clinical studies to date and shows a robust mechanism of action restoring white blood cell counts in CD4 & CD8 T cells by reducing viral load and increasing immunity. The FDA is currently reviewing IRBP’s BLA (biologics licensing application) for therapeutic treatment in people with HIV. Once the FDA approves the BLA, Remune will be the first therapeutic HIV vaccine brought to market.IRBP is set to submit its BLA with the FDA in early 2014. REMUNE granted FDA Pediatric Orphan Designation on Feb 14th 2014.
nov′el, adj. new: unusual: strange.—n. that which is new: a new or supplemental constitution or decree, issued by certain Roman emperors, as Justinian, after their authentic publications of law (also Novell′a): a fictitious prose narrative or tale presenting a picture of real life, esp. of the emotional crises in the life-history of the men and women portrayed.—n. Novelette′, a small novel.—v.t. Nov′elise, to change by introducing novelties: to put into the form of novels.—v.i. to make innovations.—n. Nov′elist, a novel-writer: an innovator.—adj. Novelist′ic.—n. Nov′elty, newness: unusual appearance: anything new, strange, or different from anything before:—pl. Nov′elties. [O. Fr. novel (Fr. nouveau)—L. novellus—novus.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Therapeutic touch, known by some as Non-Contact Therapeutic Touch, is an energy therapy which practitioners claim promotes healing and reduces pain and anxiety. Therapeutic TouchTM is a registered trademark in Canada for the "[s]tructured and standardized healing practice performed by practitioners trained to be sensitive to the receiver's energy field that surrounds the body;...no touching is required." Practitioners of therapeutic touch state that by placing their hands on, or near, a patient, they are able to detect and manipulate the patient's energy field. One highly cited study, designed by a then-nine-year-old Emily Rosa and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that practitioners of therapeutic touch could not detect the presence or absence of a hand placed a few inches above theirs when their vision was obstructed. Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst concluded in their 2008 book Trick or Treatment that "the energy field was probably nothing more than a figment in the imaginations of the healers." The American Cancer Society has noted, "Available scientific evidence does not support any claims that TT can cure cancer or other diseases."
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally written in prose form, and which is typically published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new".Some novelists, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Ann Radcliffe, John Cowper Powys, preferred the term "romance" to describe their novels. According to Margaret Doody, the novel constitutes "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in the Ancient Greek and Roman novel, in Chivalric romance, and in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. The ancient romance form was revived by Romanticism, especially the historical romances of Walter Scott and the Gothic novel. Some, including M. H. Abrams and Walter Scott, have argued that a novel is a fiction narrative that displays a realistic depiction of the state of a society, while the romance encompasses any fictitious narrative that emphasizes marvellous or uncommon incidents.Works of fiction that include marvellous or uncommon incidents are also novels, including The Lord of The Rings, To Kill a Mockingbird, and Frankenstein. "Romances" are works of fiction whose main emphasis is on marvellous or unusual incidents, and should not be confused with the romance novel, a type of genre fiction that focuses on romantic love. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji, an early 11th-century Japanese text, has sometimes been described as the world's first novel, but there is considerable debate over this — there were certainly long fictional works much earlier. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). An early example from Europe was written in Muslim Spain by the Sufi writer Ibn Tufayl entitled Hayy ibn Yaqdhan. Later developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote (the first part of which was published in 1605), is frequently cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel (1957), suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century.
Belenggoe (Perfected Spelling: Belenggu; translated to English as Shackles) is a novel by Indonesian author Armijn Pane. The novel follows the love triangle between a doctor, his wife, and his childhood friend, which eventually causes each of the three characters to lose the ones they love. Originally published by the literary magazine Poedjangga Baroe in three instalments from April to June 1940, it was the magazine's only published novel. It was also the first Indonesian psychological novel.Belenggu was based on themes present in two of Pane's early short stories: "Barang Tiada Berharga" ("Worthless Thing"; 1935) and "Lupa" ("Forget"; 1936). The resulting novel, written to represent a stream of consciousness and using ellipses and monologues to show internal struggle, was very different from earlier Indonesian novels. Unlike said works, which kept to traditional themes such as good versus evil, Belenggu mainly focused on its characters' psychological conflict. It also showed modernity and traditionalism as a binary system, unable to reach a compromise. After completion, Belenggu was offered to the Dutch colonial government's state publisher, Balai Pustaka, in 1938, but rejected as "immoral". It was then picked up by Poedjangga Baroe. Initial critical reception to the novel was mixed. Proponents argued that it served as an honest representation of the internal conflicts faced by Indonesian intellectuals, while opponents dismissed the novel as "pornographic" because of its inclusion of prostitution and adultery as normal facets of life. Later reviews have been more positive: in 1976, the writer Muhammad Balfas called Belenggu "in every respect the best novel of pre-war Indonesian literature". The novel has been translated into several languages, including into English in 1989.
In the history of technology, emerging technologies are contemporary advances and innovation in various fields of technology. Various converging technologies have emerged in the technological convergence of different systems evolving towards similar goals. Convergence can refer to previously separate technologies such as voice, data and video that now share resources and interact with each other, creating new efficiencies. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage; converging technologies represent previously distinct fields which are in some way moving towards stronger inter-connection and similar goals. However, the opinion on the degree of impact, status and economic viability of several emerging and converging technologies vary.
Marathon Technologies Corp. was founded by senior executives and engineers responsible for developing Digital Equipment Corporation's VAXft fault-tolerant systems. The team used this experience to create the first software and networking technology that allowed multiple Windows/Intel servers to operate as a single fault-tolerant system. Marathon Technologies migrated its technology in 2004 to a software-only product named everRun that works with standard off-the-shelf x86 Intel and AMD servers with Windows Server 2003 and unmodified Windows applications. In 2007, Marathon Technologies announced its v-Available product initiative, designed to fill the gap in the market for effective high availability software for server virtualization. In the spring of 2008 the company released everRun VM for Citrix XenServer the first in the series of v-Available products from Marathon Technologies that provides fault-tolerant high availability and disaster recovery protection. In late 2010, Marathon released everRun MX, the industry’s first software-based fault tolerant solution for symmetric multiprocessing and multi-core servers and applications. Marathon Technologies is headquartered in Littleton, MA, USA with additional offices in the United States, Europe and Asia. Marathon Technologies has taken venture funding from Atlas Venture, Longworth Venture Partners and venture capital firm Sierra Ventures.
The condition of favoring entrenched and inferior technologies or practices over superior technologies or practices.
Great Expectations is Charles Dickens's thirteenth novel. It is the second novel, after David Copperfield, to be fully narrated in the first person. Great Expectations is a bildungsroman, or a coming-of-age novel, and it is a classic work of Victorian literature. It depicts the growth and personal development of an orphan named Pip. The novel was first published in serial form in Dickens' weekly periodical All the Year Round, from 1 December 1860 to August 1861. In October 1861, Chapman and Hall published the novel in three volumes. Great Expectations was to be twice as long, but constraints imposed by the management of All the Year Round limited the novel's length. Collected and dense, with a conciseness unusual for Dickens, the novel represents Dickens' peak and maturity as an author. According to G. K. Chesterton, Dickens penned Great Expectations in "the afternoon of [his] life and fame." It was the penultimate novel Dickens completed, preceding Our Mutual Friend. It is set among the marshes of Kent and in London in the early to mid-1800s. From the outset, the reader is "treated" by the terrifying encounter between Pip, the protagonist, and the escaped convict, Abel Magwitch. Great Expectations is a graphic book, full of extreme imagery, poverty, prison ships, "the hulks," barriers and chains, and fights to the death. It therefore combines intrigue and unexpected twists of autobiographical detail in different tones. Regardless of its narrative technique, the novel reflects the events of the time, Dickens' concerns, and the relationship between society and man.
Atheis (English: Atheist) is a 1949 Indonesian novel written by Achdiat Karta Mihardja and published by Balai Pustaka. The novel, using three narrative voices, details the rise and fall of Hasan, a young Muslim who is raised to be religious but winds up doubting his faith after dealings with his Marxist–Leninist childhood friend and an anarcho-nihilist writer. Mihardja, a journalist-cum-literary editor who associated with the eccentric poet Chairil Anwar and the Socialist Party of Indonesia, wrote Atheis from May 1948 to February 1949. The Indonesian used in the novel was influenced by Sundanese and harkens back to earlier works by Minang writers, as opposed to Mihardja's contemporaries who attempted to distance themselves from the earlier style. Dealing mainly with faith, the novel also touches on the interactions between modernity and traditionalism. Although the writer insisted that the work was meant to be realistic, symbolic representations from subjective meanings to the novel being an allegory have been advanced. After the novel was published, it caused considerable discussion. Religious thinkers, Marxist-Leninists, and anarchists decried the novel for not explaining their ideologies in more detail, but literary figures and many in the general public praised it; this positive reception may have been influenced by the nascent government's need to promote literature for nation-building. Atheis was translated into Malay before 1970 and into English in 1972; it was also adapted into a film with the same title in 1974. The novel, which received an award from the Indonesian government in 1969, is one of the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works.
Therapeutic community is a term applied to a participative, group-based approach to long-term mental illness, personality disorders and drug addiction. The approach was usually residential, with the clients and therapists living together, but increasingly residential units have been superseded by day units. It is based on milieu therapy principles, and includes group psychotherapy as well as practical activities. Therapeutic communities have gained some reputation for success in rehabilitation and patient satisfaction in Britain and abroad. In Britain, 'democratic analytic' therapeutic communities have tended to specialise in the treatment of moderate to severe personality disorders and complex emotional and interpersonal problems. The evolution of therapeutic communities in the United States has followed a different path with hierarchically arranged communities specialising in the treatment of drug and alcohol dependence.