Synonyms containing self-originated
We've found 8,627 synonyms:
self, n. one's own person: one's personal interest: one's own personal interest, selfishness: a flower having its colour uniform as opposed to variegated:—pl. Selves (selvz).—adj. very: particular: one's own: simple, plain, unmixed with any other.—ns. Self′-aban′donment, disregard of self; Self′-abase′ment, abasement through consciousness of unworthiness.—adj. Self′-absorbed′, absorbed in one's own thoughts.—ns. Self′-abuse′, the abuse of one's own person or powers: self-pollution; Self′-accusā′tion, the act of accusing one's self.—adjs. Self′-accus′atory; Self′-act′ing, acting of, or by, itself, specially denoting a machine or mechanism which does of itself something that is ordinarily done by manual labour.—n. Self′-activ′ity, an inherent power of acting.—adj. Self′-adjust′ing, requiring no external adjustment.—n. Self′-admis′sion (Shak.), admission of one's self.—n.pl. Self′-affairs′ (Shak.), one's own affairs.—adjs. Self′-affect′ed (Shak.), affected well towards one's self; Self′-affright′ed (Shak.), frightened at one's self.—n. Self′-applause′, applause of one's self.—adjs. Self′-appoint′ed, nominated by one's self; Self′-approv′ing, implying approval of one's own conduct; Self′-assert′ing, given to asserting one's opinion: putting one's self forward.—n. Self′-asser′tion.—adj. Self′-assumed′, assumed by one's own act.—n. Self′-assump′tion, conceit.—adj. Self′-begot′ten, generated or originated by one's own powers.—n. Self′-bind′er, the automatic binding apparatus attached to some reaping-machines.—adj. Self′-blind′ed, led astray by one's self.—n. Self′-blood′ (obs.), direct progeny: suicide.—adj. Self′-born′, born or produced by one's self.—n. Self′-boun′ty (Shak.), native goodness.—adj. Self′-cen′tred, centred in self.—n. Self′-char′ity (Shak.), love of one's self.—adjs. Self′-clō′sing, shutting automatically; Self′-collect′ed, self-possessed: self-contained; Self′-col′oured, of the natural colour: dyed in the wool: coloured with a single tint: (hort.) uniform in colour.—ns. Self′-command′, self-control; Self′-complā′cency, satisfaction with one's self, or with one's own performances.—adj. — Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
One's self-concept is a collection of beliefs about oneself that includes elements such as academic performance, gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to "Who am I?" Self-concept is distinguishable from self-awareness, which refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly defined, consistent and currently applicable to one's attitudes and dispositions. Self-concept is made up of one's self-schemas. Additionally, self-concept interacts with self-esteem, self-knowledge, and social self to form the self. Self-esteem refers to the evaluation or comparison of one's self-concept and self-schemas to form one's overall self-worth. The self-concept includes past, present and future selves. Future or possible selves represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, or what they are afraid of becoming. These different selves correspond to one's hopes, fears, standards, goals, and threats for their present selves. Possible selves may function as incentives for future behavior and also provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self that is used when one self-evaluates, contributing to one's self-esteem. Self-esteem and self-concept cannot be used interchangeably. Self-esteem focuses on an evaluative and opinionated aspect to one's self, whereas self-concept is more of a cognitive or descriptive component to one's self. This distinction is important to note, as self-concept and self-esteem closely interact to form an overall view of the self.
Self-enhancement is a type of motivation that works to make people feel good about themselves and to maintain self-esteem. This motive becomes especially prominent in situations of threat, failure or blows to one's self-esteem. Self-enhancement involves a preference for positive over negative self-views. It is one of the four self-evaluation motives along with self-assessment (the drive for an accurate self-concept), self-verification (the drive for a self-concept congruent with one's identity) and self-improvement (the act of bettering one's self-concept). Self-evaluation motives drive the process of self-regulation, that is, how people control and direct their own actions. There are a variety of strategies that people can use to enhance their sense of personal worth. For example, they can downplay skills that they lack or they can criticise others to seem better by comparison. These strategies are successful, in that people tend to think of themselves as having more positive qualities and fewer negative qualities than others. Although self-enhancement is seen in people with low self-esteem as well as with high self-esteem, these two groups tend to use different strategies. People who already have high esteem enhance their self-concept directly, by processing new information in a biased way. People with low self-esteem use more indirect strategies, for example by avoiding situations in which their negative qualities will be noticeable.There are controversies over whether or not self-enhancement is beneficial to the individual, and over whether self-enhancement is culturally universal or specific to Western individualism.
Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself (for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy") as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith and Mackie (2007) defined it by saying "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it."Self-esteem is an attractive psychological construct because it predicts certain outcomes, such as academic achievement, happiness, satisfaction in marriage and relationships, and criminal behavior. Self-esteem can apply to a specific attribute (for example, "I believe I am a good writer and I feel happy about that") or globally (for example, "I believe I am a bad person, and I feel bad about myself in general"). Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic (trait self-esteem), though normal, short-term variations (state self-esteem) also exist. Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include many things: self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, and self-integrity.
Self-diagnosis is the process of diagnosing, or identifying, medical conditions in oneself. It may be assisted by medical dictionaries, books, resources on the Internet, past personal experiences, or recognizing symptoms or medical signs of a condition that a family member previously had. Self-diagnosis is prone to error and may be potentially dangerous if inappropriate decisions are made on the basis of a misdiagnosis. Because of the risks, self-diagnosis is officially discouraged by governments, physicians, and patient care organizations. Even physicians are discouraged from engaging in self-diagnosis, because doctors also make mistakes in diagnosing themselves. If the self-diagnosis is wrong, then the misdiagnosis can result in improper health care, including wrong treatments and lack of care for serious conditions. One of the greatest dangers of self diagnosis in psychological syndromes, is that you may miss a medical disease that masquerades as a psychiatric syndrome. Self-diagnosis also undermines the role of the doctor-which is not the best way to start the relationship. Then there is the fact that we can know and see ourselves, but sometimes, we need a mirror to see ourselves more clearly. By self-diagnosing, you may be missing something that you cannot see. Another danger of self diagnosis is that you may think that there is more wrong with you than there actually is. Self-diagnosis is also a problem when you are in a state of denial about your symptoms. However, self-diagnosis may be appropriate under certain circumstances. All over-the-counter (non-prescription) medications are offered on the assumption that people are capable of self-diagnosis, determining first that their condition is unlikely to be serious and then the possible harm caused by incorrect medication minor. Some conditions are more likely to be self-diagnosed, especially simple conditions such as head lice and skin abrasions or familiar conditions such as menstrual cramps, headache or the common cold. Complex conditions for which medications are heavily advertised, including conditions like ADHD in adults, present a more challenging situation. Direct-to-consumer marketing of medications is widely criticized for promoting inappropriate self-diagnosis. One other condition that is commonly self-diagnosed is gluten intolerance.
Self-harm or deliberate self-harm includes self-injury and self-poisoning and is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue most often done without suicidal intentions. These terms are used in the more recent literature in an attempt to reach a more neutral terminology. The older literature, especially that which predates the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, almost exclusively refers to self-mutilation. The term is synonymous with "self-injury". The most common form of self-harm is skin-cutting but self-harm also covers a wide range of behaviors including, but not limited to, burning, scratching, banging or hitting body parts, interfering with wound healing, hair-pulling and the ingestion of toxic substances or objects. Behaviours associated with substance abuse and eating disorders are usually not considered self-harm because the resulting tissue damage is ordinarily an unintentional side effect. However, the boundaries are not always clearly defined and in some cases behaviours that usually fall outside the boundaries of self-harm may indeed represent self-harm if performed with explicit intent to cause tissue damage. Although suicide is not the intention of self-harm, the relationship between self-harm and suicide is complex, as self-harming behaviour may be potentially life-threatening. There is also an increased risk of suicide in individuals who self-harm to the extent that self-harm is found in 40–60% of suicides. However, generalising self-harmers to be suicidal is, in the majority of cases, inaccurate.
Self-knowledge is a term used in psychology to describe the information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?". While seeking to develop the answer to this question, self-knowledge requires ongoing self-awareness and self-consciousness Young infants and chimpanzees will display some of the traits self-awareness and agency/contingency, yet not be considered as also having self-consciousness. At some greater level of cognition, however, a self-conscious component emerges in addition to an increased self-awareness component, and then it becomes possible to ask "What am I like?", and to answer with self-knowledge. Self-knowledge is a component of the self, or more accurately, the self-concept. It is the knowledge of one's self and one's properties and the desire to seek such knowledge that guide the development of the self-concept. Self-knowledge informs us of our mental representations of ourselves, which contain attributes that we uniquely pair with ourselves, and theories on whether these attributes are stable, or dynamic. The self-concept is thought to have three primary aspects: ⁕The Cognitive Self
Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person's overall emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame. Smith and Mackie define it by saying "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it." Self-esteem is also known as the evaluative dimension of the self that includes feelings of worthiness, prides and discouragement. One's self-esteem is also closely associated with self-consciousness. Self-esteem is a disposition that a person has which represents their judgments of their own worthiness. In the mid-1960s, Morris Rosenberg and social-learning theorists defined self-esteem as a personal worth or worthiness. Nathaniel Branden in 1969 defined self-esteem as "the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness." According to Branden, self-esteem is the sum of self-confidence and self-respect. It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment that every person has of their ability to face life's challenges, to understand and solve problems, and their right to achieve happiness, and be given respect.
In social psychology, self-assessment is the process of looking at oneself in order to assess aspects that are important to one's identity. It is one of the motives that drive self-evaluation, along with self-verification and self-enhancement. Sedikides suggests that the self-assessment motive will prompt people to seek information to confirm their uncertain self-concept rather than their certain self-concept and at the same time people use self-assessment to enhance their certainty of their own self-knowledge. However, the self-assessment motive could be seen as quite different to the other two self-evaluation motives. Unlike the other two motives through self-assessment people are interested in the accuracy of their current self view, rather than improving their self-view. This makes self-assessment the only self-evaluative motive that may cause a person's self-esteem to be damaged.
A person's self-image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others, but also items that have been learned by that person about himself or herself, either from personal experiences or by internalizing the judgments of others. A simple definition of a person's self-image is their answer to the question "What do you believe people think about you?". Self-image may consist of three types: ⁕Self-image resulting from how the individual sees himself or herself. ⁕Self-image resulting from how others see the individual. ⁕Self-image resulting from how the individual perceives others see him or her. These three types may or may not be an accurate representation of the person. All, some or none of them may be true. A more technical term for self-image that is commonly used by social and cognitive psychologists is self-schema. Like any schema, self-schemas store information and influence the way we think and remember. For example, research indicates that information which refers to the self is preferentially encoded and recalled in memory tests, a phenomenon known as "Self-referential encoding". Self-schemas are also considered the traits people use to define themselves, they draw information about the self into a coherent scheme.
Self-sustainability and self-sufficiency are overlapping states of being in which a person or organization needs little or no help from, or interaction with, others. Self-sufficiency entails the self being enough (to fulfill needs), and a self-sustaining entity can maintain self-sufficiency indefinitely. These states represent types of personal or collective autonomy. On a national scale, a totally self-sufficient economy that requires little or no trade with the outside world is called an autarky. Absolute purity of personal self-sufficiency or national autarky is a theoretical concept rather than a reality, but relative degrees are observable in real-world examples. Self-sustainability is a type of sustainable living in which nothing is consumed other than what is produced by the self-sufficient individuals. Examples of attempts at self-sufficiency in North America include simple living, homesteading, off-the-grid, survivalism, DIY ethic and the back-to-the-land movement.
Self-complexity is a person’s perceived knowledge of herself or himself, based upon the number of distinct cognitive structures, or self-aspects, they believe themselves to possess. These self-aspects can include context-dependent social roles, relationships, activities, superordinate traits, and goals of the individual, which combine to form the larger, associative network of their self-concept. According to self-complexity theory, an individual who has a number of self-aspects that are unique in their attributes will have greater self-complexity than one who has only a few self-aspects, or whose self-aspects are closely associated to one another. In other words, self-complexity may invoke the question, “How full is the self-concept”?
Self-control, an aspect of inhibitory control, is the ability to regulate one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior in the face of temptations and impulses. As an executive function, self-control is a cognitive process that is necessary for regulating one's behavior in order to achieve specific goals.A related concept in psychology is emotional self-regulation. Self-control is thought to be like a muscle. According to studies, self-regulation, whether emotional or behavioral, was proven to be a limited resource which functions like energy. In the short term, overuse of self-control will lead to depletion. However, in the long term, the use of self-control can strengthen and improve over time.Self-control is also a key concept in the general theory of crime, a major theory in criminology. The theory was developed by Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi in their book titled A General Theory of Crime, published in 1990. Gottfredson and Hirschi define self-control as the differential tendency of individuals to avoid criminal acts independent of the situations in which they find themselves. Individuals with low self-control tend to be impulsive, insensitive towards others, risk takers, short-sighted, and nonverbal. About 70% of the variance in questionaire data operationalizing one construct of Self-Control had been found to be genetic.
Self-fashioning, a term introduced by Stephen Greenblatt (Renaissance,Self-Fashioning, 1980), is used to describe the process of constructing one's identity and public persona according to a set of socially acceptable standards. Greenblatt described the process in the Renaissance era where a noble man was instructed to dress in the finest clothing he could afford, to be well versed and educated in art, literature, sports, and other culturally determined noble exercises, and to generally compose himself in a carefully intended manner. Additionally, the relationship between self-fashioning and the aesthetic mediums was a reciprocal one. Just as the art of creating oneself was highly influenced by the art and literature of the time, such as conduct books and religious iconography, such a concern for one's outwardly projected image was reflected in the portraiture of the time. According to Greenblatt, during the Renaissance the upper class practiced self-fashioning. Prescribed attire and behavior was created for the noblemen and women, and were represented through portraits. The ideological traits portraying masculinity were symbols of authority and power. Male rulers depicted themselves in armor or with weapons. The most important characteristic attributed to women was beauty. Beauty represents the concepts of purity, virtue and modesty. In portraits, women performed these traits through idealized features, fancy dresses, and elaborate jewelry. The iconography of portraits displays the gender-specific qualities prescribed during the Renaissance through visual devices. The Book of the Courtier, by Baldassare Castiglione, is one of the first texts that depicted behaviors which individuals were expected to adopt in society. As an informal book of conduct, The Courtier included instructions on how people of the noble class were to dress and speak, as well as general rules of interaction to follow in social situations. In his article "The Semiotics of Masculinity in Renaissance England", David Kuchta discusses the role of The Courtier concerning its influence on the self-fashioning of Renaissance England. Men of the noble class were to "create" themselves as works of art, according to the conventions of dress and manner as set forth by the monarchs. Characteristics of this Renaissance self-fashioning involve the use of "feminine" aspects of dress and conduct. A man was to conduct and dress in a way that reflected his position in society. He was not supposed to act in an affected manner, but present naturalness and nonchalance, or sprezzatura. In addition to, The Courtier puts emphasis on the importance of not only trying to resemble one's master, but actually trying to transform himself into his master in a way that exercises sprezzatura. This presents a key theme in self-fashioning: the conscious effort to strive to imitate a praised model in society. For women, one of the most popular figures to imitate was the Virgin Mary. Margaret R. Miles provides a thorough analysis of this influence-through-images of iconography and art in her article "The Virgin's One Bare Breast". The bare breast symbolized nourishment in a time of famine. Depicting the Virgin Mary nursing the infant Christ encouraged women to aspire to provide the same nourishment for their own families and community. Miles goes on to explain that, although women were encouraged to strive to emulate the many virtues of the Virgin, they must also be aware that one could never fully achieve such a standard. Similarly, men were taught that they should follow in the image of Christ, which was believed to be more attainable. Greenblatt's theories are influenced by the French sociologist and historian Michel Foucault. Self-fashioning has implications and applications outside of Renaissance studies. Waleska Schwandt applies the theory to Oscar Wilde in a chapter of the book The Importance of Reinventing Oscar: Versions of Wilde during the Last 100 Years, edited by Uwe Boker et al. (New York and Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002). Alvina E. Quintana uses the theory to analyse twentieth century Chicano literature (see "Ana Castillo's The Mixquiahuala Letters", in Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture and Ideology, Hector Calderon and Jose David Saldivar (eds), Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991, pp. 72–83). Jack Chen applies the concept to the writings of Emperor Taizong in a book titled the Poetics of Sovereignty: on Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, (Boston, Mass: Harvard University Asia Center, 2011). In a chapter of the 2018 textbook International Perspectives on Theorizing Aspirations: Applying Bourdieu’s Tools, edited by Garth Stahl et al. (London, UK: Bloomsbury, 2018, pp. 44) in Steven Threadgold's chapter Bourdieu Is Not A Determinist, Guy Mankowski applies the theory with reference to punk music, where self-fashioning is re-appropriated as 'self-design'.
A self-defeating prophecy (self-destroying or self-denying in some sources) is the complementary opposite of a self-fulfilling prophecy; a prediction that prevents what it predicts from happening. This is also known as the prophet's dilemma. A self-defeating prophecy can be the result of rebellion to the prediction. If the audience of a prediction has an interest in seeing it falsified, and its fulfillment depends on their actions or inaction, their actions upon hearing it will make the prediction less plausible. If a prediction is made with this outcome specifically in mind, it is commonly referred to as reverse psychology or warning. Also, when working to make a premonition come true, one can inadvertently change the circumstances so much that the prophecy cannot come true. It is important to distinguish a self-defeating prophecy from a self-fulfilling prophecy that predicts a negative outcome. If a prophecy of a negative outcome is made, and that negative outcome is achieved as a result of positive feedback, then it is a self-fulfilling prophecy. For example, if a group of people decide they will not be able to achieve a goal and stop working towards the goal as a result, their prophecy was self-fulfilling. Likewise, if a prediction of a negative outcome is made, but the outcome is positive because of negative feedback resulting from the rebellion, then that is a self-defeating prophecy.