Synonyms containing time–space compression
We've found 36,712 synonyms:
tīm, n. a point at which, or period during which, things happen: a season or proper time: an opportunity: absolute duration: an interval: past time: the duration of one's life: allotted period: repetition of anything or mention with reference to repetition: musical measure, or rate of movement: a measured interval in verse: (gram.) the relation of a verb with regard to tense: the umpire's call in prize-fights, &c.: hour of travail: the state of things at any period, usually in pl.: the history of the world, as opposed to eternity: addition of a thing to itself.—v.t. to do at the proper season: to regulate as to time: (mus.) to measure.—v.i. to keep or beat time.—ns. Time′-ball, a ball arranged to drop from the summit of a pole at a particular time; Time′-bargain, a contract to buy or sell merchandise or stock at a certain time in the future.—adjs. Time′-beguil′ing, making the time pass quickly; Time′-bett′ering, improving the state of things as time goes on; Time′-bewast′ed (Shak.), wasted or worn by time.—ns. Time′-bill, a time-table; Time′-book, a book for keeping an account of the time men have worked; Time′-card, a card bearing a time-table: a card with blank spaces for workmen's hours, &c., being filled in; Time′-fuse, a fuse calculated to burn a definite length of time; Time′-gun, a gun which is fired by means of a mechanical contrivance and a current of electricity at a particular time.—adj. Time′-hon′oured, honoured for a long time: venerable on account of antiquity.—ns. Time′ist, Tim′ist, a musical performer in relation to his sense for time; Time′-keep′er, a clock, watch, or other instrument for keeping or marking time: one who keeps the time of workmen.—adj. Time′less, done at an improper time, unseasonable: (Shak.) done before the proper time.—adv. Time′lessly, before the proper time: unseasonably.—n. Time′liness.—adj. Time′ly, in good time: sufficiently early: (obs.) keeping time.—adv. early, soon.—adjs. Time′ly-part′ed (Shak.), having died in time—i.e. at a natural time; Time′ous, in Scot. legal phraseology, in good time: seasonable.—adv. Time′ously, in good time.—ns. Time′piece, a piece of machinery for keeping time, esp. a clock for a mantel-piece; Time′-pleas′er (Shak.), one who complies with prevailing opinions, whatever they be; Time′-serv′er, one who serves or meanly suits his opinions to the times.—adj. Time′-serving, complying with the spirit of the times or with present power.—n. mean compliance with the spirit of the times or with present power.—ns. Time′-tā′ble, a table or list showing the times of certain things, as trains, steamers, &c.; Time′-thrust<
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Compression Moulding is a method of moulding in which the moulding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mould cavity. The mould is closed with a top force or plug member, pressure is applied to force the material into contact with all mould areas, while heat and pressure are maintained until the moulding material has cured. The process employs thermosetting resins in a partially cured stage, either in the form of granules, putty-like masses, or preforms. Compression molding is a high-volume, high-pressure method suitable for molding complex, high-strength fiberglass reinforcements. Advanced composite thermoplastics can also be compression molded with unidirectional tapes, woven fabrics, randomly oriented fiber mat or chopped strand. The advantage of compression molding is its ability to mold large, fairly intricate parts. Also, it is one of the lowest cost molding methods compared with other methods such as transfer molding and injection molding; moreover it wastes relatively little material, giving it an advantage when working with expensive compounds. However, compression molding often provides poor product consistency and difficulty in controlling flashing, and it is not suitable for some types of parts. Fewer knit lines are produced and a smaller amount of fiber-length degradation is noticeable when compared to injection molding. Compression-molding is also suitable for ultra-large basic shape production in sizes beyond the capacity of extrusion techniques. Materials that are typically manufactured through compression molding include: Polyester fiberglass resin systems (SMC/BMC), Torlon, Vespel, Poly(p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS), and many grades of PEEK.Compression molding is commonly utilized by product development engineers seeking cost effective rubber and silicone parts. Manufacturers of low volume compression molded components include PrintForm, 3D, STYS, and Aero MFG. Compression molding was first developed to manufacture composite parts for metal replacement applications, compression molding is typically used to make larger flat or moderately curved parts. This method of molding is greatly used in manufacturing automotive parts such as hoods, fenders, scoops, spoilers, as well as smaller more intricate parts. The material to be molded is positioned in the mold cavity and the heated platens are closed by a hydraulic ram. Bulk molding compound (BMC) or sheet molding compound (SMC), are conformed to the mold form by the applied pressure and heated until the curing reaction occurs. SMC feed material usually is cut to conform to the surface area of the mold. The mold is then cooled and the part removed. Mold and material behavior vary based on material types. New I-PRESS Servo Hydraulic technology provides end users with a greater degree of flexibility with press movement & pressure profiles and control of external devices such as automation to platen zone temperature control. With the latest of electronic servo motor to high pressure hydraulic pump users save considerable energy and the greatest in speed, distance, pressure, dwell time and burping movements. Materials may be loaded into the mold either in the form of pellets or sheet, or the mold may be loaded from a plasticating extruder. Materials are heated above their melting points, formed and cooled. The more evenly the feed material is distributed over the mold surface, the less flow orientation occurs during the compression stage.Compression molding is also widely used to produce sandwich structures that incorporate a core material such as a honeycomb or polymer foam.Thermoplastic matrices are commonplace in mass production industries. One significant example are automotive applications where the leading technologies are long fibre reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) and glass fiber mat reinforced thermoplastics (GMT).
In computer science and information theory, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation. Compression can be either lossy or lossless. Lossless compression reduces bits by identifying and eliminating statistical redundancy. No information is lost in lossless compression. Lossy compression reduces bits by identifying unnecessary information and removing it. The process of reducing the size of a data file is popularly referred to as data compression, although its formal name is source coding. Compression is useful because it helps reduce resources usage, such as data storage space or transmission capacity. Because compressed data must be decompressed to use, this extra processing imposes computational or other costs through decompression; this situation is far from being a free lunch. Data compression is subject to a space-time complexity trade-off. For instance, a compression scheme for video may require expensive hardware for the video to be decompressed fast enough to be viewed as it is being decompressed, and the option to decompress the video in full before watching it may be inconvenient or require additional storage. The design of data compression schemes involves trade-offs among various factors, including the degree of compression, the amount of distortion introduced, and the computational resources required to compress and uncompress the data.
Space law is the body of law governing space-related activities, encompassing both international and domestic agreements, rules, and principles. Parameters of space law include space exploration, liability for damage, weapons use, rescue efforts, environmental preservation, information sharing, new technologies, and ethics. Other fields of law, such as administrative law, intellectual property law, arms control law, insurance law, environmental law, criminal law, and commercial law, are also integrated within space law.The origins of space law date back to 1919, with international law recognizing each country's sovereignty over the airspace directly above their territory, later reinforced at the Chicago Convention in 1944. The onset of domestic space programs during the Cold War propelled the official creation of international space policy (i.e. the International Geophysical Year) initiated by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, directly spurred the United States Congress to pass the Space Act, thus creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Because space exploration required crossing transnational boundaries, it was during this era where space law became a field independent from traditional aerospace law.Since the Cold War, the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Outer Space Treaty") and the International Telecommunications Union have served as the constitutional legal framework and set of principles and procedures constituting space law. Further, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), along with its Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees, are responsible for debating issues of international space law and policy. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) serves as the secretariat of the Committee and is promoting Access to Space for All through a wide range of conferences and capacity-building programs. Challenges that space law will continue to face in the future are fourfold—spanning across dimensions of domestic compliance, international cooperation, ethics, and the advent of scientific innovations. Furthermore, specific guidelines on the definition of airspace have yet to be universally determined.
Time–space compression, first articulated in 1989 by geographer David Harvey in The Condition of Postmodernity, refers to any phenomenon that alters the qualities of and relationship between space and time. Time–space compression often occurs as a result of technological innovations that condense or elide spatial and temporal distances, including technologies of communication, travel, and economics. According to theorists like Paul Virilio, time-space compression is an essential facet of contemporary life: "Today we are entering a space which is speed-space ... This new other time is that of electronic transmission, of high-tech machines, and therefore, man is present in this sort of time, not via his physical presence, but via programming". Virilio also uses the term dromology to describe "speed-space." Doreen Massey maintains this idea about time-space compression in her discussion of globalization and its effect on our society. Similar to Virilio, she states that because our world is "speeding up" and "spreading out", time-space compression is more prevalent than ever as internationalization takes place.
Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data. By contrast, lossy data compression, permits reconstruction only of an approximation of the original data, though this usually allows for improved compression rates. Lossless data compression is used in many applications. For example, it is used in the ZIP file format and in the Unix tool gzip. It is also often used as a component within lossy data compression technologies. Lossless compression is used in cases where it is important that the original and the decompressed data be identical, or where deviations from the original data could be deleterious. Typical examples are executable programs, text documents, and source code. Some image file formats, like PNG or GIF, use only lossless compression, while others like TIFF and MNG may use either lossless or lossy methods. Lossless audio formats are most often used for archiving or production purposes, while smaller lossy audio files are typically used on portable players and in other cases where storage space is limited or exact replication of the audio is unnecessary.
.CSO is a compression method for the ISO image format. It is used to compress dumped PlayStation Portable UMD games, and is an alternative to the .DAX compression method. It is also sometimes called "CISO". It was the first compression method for ISO. It was created so that more memory space can be saved. Booster created the first code; it was later optimized for better compression. Other formats tried to replace it by fixing up certain issues such as lag in games, such as .DAX and .JSO. However at the time, the popular application homebrew "DevHook" used CSO. .DAX needed another loader, and .JSO was basically unused. CSO provides nine levels of compression. While the highest levels of compression can introduce slowdown and lengthy load-times in software which relies heavily on disc streaming, even the lower levels are capable of substantial compression. This is partially due to the data layout of a UMD, though more frequently due to the use of Dummy Files as both an anti-piracy tool and a means to more optimally lay the data out physically on the disc. In addition to being used for compressing PlayStation Portable UMD games, the PSP port of PicoDrive supports compressed Sega Mega-CD disc images in the CSO format.
A disk compression software utility increases the amount of information that can be stored on a hard disk drive of given size. Unlike a file compression utility which compresses only specified files - and which requires the user designate the files to be compressed - a disk compression utility works automatically without the user needing to be aware of its existence. When information needs to be stored to the hard disk, the utility will compress the information. When information needs to be read, the utility will decompress the information. A disk compression utility overrides the standard operating system routines. Since all software applications access the hard disk using these routines, they continue to work after disk compression has been installed. Disk compression utilities were popular especially in the early 1990s, when microcomputer hard disks were still relatively small. Hard drives were also rather expensive at the time, costing roughly 10 USD per megabyte. For the users who bought disk compression applications, the software proved to be in the short term a more economic means of acquiring more disk space as opposed to replacing their current drive with a larger one.
ICER is a wavelet-based image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers. ICER has both lossy and lossless compression modes. The Mars Exploration Rovers “Spirit” and “Opportunity” both use ICER. Onboard image compression is used extensively to make best use of the downlink resources. The Mars Science Lab supports the use of ICER for its navigation cameras. Most of the MER images are compressed with the ICER image compression software. The remaining MER images that are compressed make use of modified Low Complexity Lossless Compression software, a lossless submode of ICER. ICER is a wavelet-based image compressor that allows for a graceful trade-off between the amount of compression and the resulting degradation in image quality. ICER has some similarities to JPEG2000, with respect to select wavelet operations. The development of ICER was driven by the desire to achieve high compression performance while meeting the specialized needs of deep space applications.
(Computers) reduction of the space required for storage (of binary data) by an algorithm which converts the data to a smaller number of bits while preserving the information content. The act of compressing . Compression may be lossless compression, in which all of the information in the original data is preserved, and the original data may be recovered in form identical to its original form; or lossy compression, in which some of the information in the original data is lost, and decompression results in a data form slightly different from the original. Lossy compression is used, for example, to compress audio or video recordings, and sometimes images, where the slight differences in the original data and the data recovered after lossy compression may be imperceptable to the human eye or ear. The JPEG format is produced by a lossy compression algorithm.
"Space art" (also "astronomical art") is the term for a genre of modern artistic expression that strives to show the wonders of the Universe. Like other genres, Space Art has many facets and encompasses realism, impressionism, hardware art, sculpture, abstract imagery, even zoological art. Though artists have been making art with astronomical elements for a long time, the genre of Space Art itself is still in its infancy, having begun only when humanity gained the ability to look off our world and artistically depicted what we see out there. Whatever the stylistic path, the artist is generally attempting to communicate ideas somehow related to space, often including an appreciation of the infinite variety and vastness which surrounds us. In some cases, artists who consider themselves Space Artists use more than illustration and painting to communicate scientific discoveries or works depicting space, some have had the opportunity to work directly with space flight technology and scientists in attempts to expand the arts, humanities, and cultural expression relative to space exploration. Practitioners of the visual arts have for many decades explored space in their imaginations using traditional painting media and many are now using digital media toward similar ends. Science fiction magazines and picture essay magazines were once a major outlet for Space Art, often featuring planets, space ships and dramatic alien landscapes. Chesley Bonestell, R. A. Smith, Lucien Rudaux, David A. Hardy and Ludek Pesek were some of the major artists in the early days of the genre actively involved in visualizing space exploration proposals with input from astronomers and experts in the infant rocketry field anxious to spread their ideas to a wider audience. (Indeed, NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb, initiated the space agency's Space Art program in 1962, four years after its founding.) A strength of Bonestell's work in particular was the portrayal of exotic worlds with their own alien beauty, often giving a sense of destination as much as of the technological means of getting there.
|Homogeneous charge compression ignition|
Homogeneous charge compression ignition
Homogeneous charge compression ignition is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. As in other forms of combustion, this exothermic reaction releases chemical energy into a sensible form that can be transformed in an engine into work and heat. HCCI combines characteristics of conventional gasoline engine and diesel engines. Gasoline engines combine homogeneous charge with spark ignition, abbreviated as HCSI. Diesel engines combine stratified charge with compression ignition, abbreviated as SCCI. As in HCSI, HCCI injects fuel during the intake stroke. However, rather than using an electric discharge to ignite a portion of the mixture, HCCI raises density and temperature by compression until the entire mixture reacts spontaneously. Stratified charge compression ignition also relies on temperature and density increase resulting from compression. However, it injects fuel later, during the compression stroke. Combustion occurs at the boundary of the fuel and air, producing higher emissions, but allowing a leaner and higher compression burn, producing greater efficiency.
A space elevator is a proposed type of space transportation system. Its main component is a ribbon-like cable anchored to the surface and extending into space. It is designed to permit vehicle transport along the cable from a planetary surface, such as the Earth's, directly into space or orbit, without the use of large rockets. An Earth-based space elevator would consist of a cable with one end attached to the surface near the equator and the other end in space beyond geostationary orbit. The competing forces of gravity, which is stronger at the lower end, and the outward/upward centrifugal force, which is stronger at the upper end, would result in the cable being held up, under tension, and stationary over a single position on Earth. Once deployed, the tether would be ascended repeatedly by mechanical means to orbit, and descended to return to the surface from orbit. The concept for a space elevator was first published in 1895 by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. His proposal was for a free-standing tower reaching from the surface of Earth to the height of geostationary orbit. Like all buildings, Tsiolkovsky's structure would be under compression, supporting its weight from below. Since 1959, most ideas for space elevators have focused on purely tensile structures, with the weight of the system held up from above. In the tensile concepts, a space tether reaches from a large mass beyond geostationary orbit to the ground. This structure is held in tension between Earth and the counterweight like an upside-down plumb bob. Space elevators have also sometimes been referred to as beanstalks, space bridges, space lifts, space ladders, skyhooks, orbital towers, or orbital elevators.
Space policy is the political decision-making process for, and application of, public policy of a state (or association of states) regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian (scientific and commercial) and military purposes. International treaties, such as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, attempt to maximize the peaceful uses of space and restrict the militarization of space. Space policy intersects with science policy, since national space programs often perform or fund research in space science, and also with defense policy, for applications such as spy satellites and anti-satellite weapons. It also encompasses government regulation of third-party activities such as commercial communications satellites and private spaceflight.Space policy also encompasses the creation and application of space law, and space advocacy organizations exist to support the cause of space exploration.
In page layout, illustration and sculpture, white space is often referred to as negative space. It is the portion of a page left unmarked: the space between graphics, margins, gutters, space between columns, space between lines of type or figures and objects drawn or depicted. The term arises from graphic design practice, where printing processes generally use white paper. White space should not be considered merely 'blank' space — it is an important element of design which enables the objects in it to exist at all, the balance between positive and the use of negative spaces is key to aesthetic composition. When space is at a premium, such as some types of magazine, newspaper, and yellow pages advertising, white space is limited in order to get as much vital information on to the page as possible. A page crammed full of text or graphics with very little white space runs the risk of appearing busy, cluttered, and is typically difficult to read. Some designs compensate for this problem through the careful use of leading and typeface. Judicious use of white space can give a page a classic, elegant, or rich appearance. For example, upscale brands often use ad layouts with little text and a lot of white space. Inexpert use of white space can make a page appear incomplete. For publication designers, white space is very important. Publications can be printed on a various of amount of different papers, those of which can have different colours, textures, etc. In these cases, white space is used for good presentation and showcasing the different stocks used.