Synonyms containing extremophilic
We've found 9 synonyms:
A colony single-celled extremophilic bacteria that hang from the ceilings of some caves.
Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophilic bacterium, one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known. It can survive cold, dehydration, vacuum, and acid, and is therefore known as a polyextremophile and has been listed as the world's toughest bacterium in The Guinness Book Of World Records.
A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.
— U.S. National Library of Medicine
Snottites are colonies of single-celled extremophilic bacteria which hang from the walls and ceilings of caves and are similar to small stalactites, but have the consistency of snot. The bacteria derive their energy from chemosynthesis of volcanic sulfur compounds including H2S and warm-water solution dripping down from above, producing sulfuric acid. Because of this, their waste products are highly acidic, with similar properties to battery acid. Snottites were brought to attention by researchers Diana Northup and Penny Boston studying them in a toxic sulfur cave called Cueva de Villa Luz, in Tabasco, Mexico. The term "snottite" was given to these cave features by Jim Pisarowicz in 1986. Brian Cox's BBC series Wonders of the Solar System saw a scientist examining snottites in the caves and positing that if there is life on Mars, it may be similarly primitive and hidden beneath the surface of the Red Planet.
Pyrococcus furiosus is an extremophilic species of Archaea. It can be classified as a hyperthermophile because it thrives best under extremely high temperatures—higher than those preferred of a thermophile. It is notable for having an optimum growth temperature of 100°C, and for being one of the few organisms identified as possessing enzymes containing tungsten, an element rarely found in biological molecules.
Psychrophiles or cryophiles are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in cold temperatures, ranging from −15°C to +10°C. Temperatures as low as −15°C are found in pockets of very salty water surrounded by sea ice. They can be contrasted with thermophiles, which thrive at unusually hot temperatures. The environments they inhabit are ubiquitous on Earth, as a large fraction of our planetary surface experiences temperatures lower than 15°C. They are present in alpine and arctic soils, high-latitude and deep ocean waters, polar ice, glaciers, and snowfields. They are of particular interest to astrobiology, the field dedicated to the formulation of theory about the possibility of extraterrestrial life, and to geomicrobiology, the study of microbes active in geochemical processes. In experimental work at University of Alaska Fairbanks, a 1000 litre biogas digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200–300 litres of methane per day, about 20–30% of the output from digesters in warmer climates. Psychrophiles use a wide variety of metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, chemoautotrophy, and heterotrophy, and form robust, diverse communities. Most psychrophiles are bacteria or archaea, and psychrophily is present in widely diverse microbial lineages within those broad groups. Additionally, recent research has discovered novel groups of psychrophilic fungi living in oxygen-poor areas under alpine snowfields. A further group of eukaryotic cold-adapted organisms are snow algae, which can cause watermelon snow. Psychrophiles are characterized by lipid cell membranes chemically resistant to the stiffening caused by extreme cold, and often create protein 'antifreezes' to keep their internal space liquid and protect their DNA even in temperatures below water's freezing point.
A photobioreactor is a bioreactor that incorporates some type of light source to provide photonic energy input into the reactor. Also, an open pond could be seen as photobioreactor, but mostly the term photobioreactor only refers to closed systems, systems closed to the environment having no direct exchange of gases and contaminants with the environment. Nowadays, some extremophilic organisms are grown into open ponds. However, many other microalgae are promising for the production of an enormous variety of compounds. To cultivate also these algae and their products, monocultures have to be maintained and for that, enclosed photobioreactors have to be used. A photobioreactor can be described as an enclosed, illuminated culture vessel designed for controlled biomass production of phototrophic liquid cell suspension cultures. Photobioreactors, despite their costs, have several major advantages over open systems. They can: ⁕prevent or minimize contamination, permitting cultivating of axenic algal monocultures, ⁕offer better control over biocultural conditions.
A xerophile, is an extremophilic organism that can grow and reproduce in conditions with a low availability of water, also known as water activity. Water activity is a measure of the amount of water within a substrate an organism can use to support sexual growth. Xerophiles are often said to be "xerotolerant", meaning tolerant of dry conditions. They can survive in environments with water activity below 0.8. Endoliths and halophiles are often xerotolerant. The common food preservation method of reducing water activities may not prevent the growth of xerophilic organisms, often resulting in food spoilage. Many mold and yeast species are xerophilic. Mold growth on bread is an example of food spoilage by xerophilic organisms. Examples of xerophiles include Trichosporonoides nigrescens, cacti, and tardigrades, which can survive for almost a decade without exposure to water.
Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10. These bacteria can be further categorized as obligate alkaliphiles, facultative alkaliphiles and haloalakliphiles.