Synonyms containing fixation (psychology)
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Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, thought, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. The mathematical approach is used with the goal of deriving hypotheses that are more exact and thus yield stricter empirical validations. Quantifiable behavior is in practice often constituted by task performance. The application of math in psychology could be traced back to at least seventeenth century when scientists like Kepler and Galileo were investigating the laws of mental process. At that time, psychology had not even been recognized as an independent subject of science. The applications of mathematics in psychology can be roughly classified into two areas: one is the mathematical modeling of psychological theories and experimental phenomena which leads to mathematical psychology, the other is the statistical approach of quantitative measurement practices in psychology which leads to psychometrics.There are five major research areas in mathematical psychology: learning and memory, perception and psychophysics, choice and decision making, language and thinking, and measurement and scaling.As quantification of behavior is fundamental in this endeavor, the theory of measurement is a central topic in mathematical psychology. Mathematical psychology is therefore closely related to psychometrics. However, where psychometrics is concerned with individual differences (or population structure) in mostly static variables, mathematical psychology focuses on process models of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes as inferred from the 'average individual'. Furthermore, where psychometrics investigates the stochastic dependence structure between variables as observed in the population, mathematical psychology almost exclusively focuses on the modeling of data obtained from experimental paradigms and is therefore even more closely related to experimental psychology/cognitive psychology/psychonomics. Like computational neuroscience and econometrics, mathematical psychology theory often uses statistical optimality as a guiding principle, assuming that the human brain has evolved to solve problems in an optimized way. Central themes from cognitive psychology; limited vs. unlimited processing capacity, serial vs. parallel processing, etc., and their implications, are central in rigorous analysis in mathematical psychology. Mathematical psychologists are active in many fields of psychology, especially in psychophysics, sensation and perception, problem solving, decision-making, learning, memory, and language, collectively known as cognitive psychology, and the quantitative analysis of behavior but also, e.g., in clinical psychology, social psychology, and psychology of music.
The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome problems in real life situations. Many areas of our lives and society have been influenced and changed by the often unnoticed application of psychological principles. Mental health,organizational psychology business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings. The umbrella of applied psychology includes the areas of clinical psychology, counseling psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, occupational health psychology, human factors, forensic psychology, engineering psychology, as well as many other areas such as school psychology, sports psychology and community psychology. In addition, a number of specialized areas in the general field of psychology have applied branches. However, the lines between sub-branch specializations and major applied psychology categories are often blurred. For example, a human factors psychologist might use a cognitive psychology theory. Is this human factor psychology or applied cognitive psychology?
Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly. For example, chronically occurring environmental stressors affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cumulatively, can harm health. Behavioral factors can also affect a person's health. For example, certain behaviors can, over time, harm (smoking or consuming excessive amounts of alcohol) or enhance health (engaging in exercise). Health psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach. In other words, health psychologists understand health to be the product not only of biological processes (e.g., a virus, tumor, etc.) but also of psychological (e.g., thoughts and beliefs), behavioral (e.g., habits), and social processes (e.g., socioeconomic status and ethnicity).By understanding psychological factors that influence health, and constructively applying that knowledge, health psychologists can improve health by working directly with individual patients or indirectly in large-scale public health programs. In addition, health psychologists can help train other healthcare professionals (e.g., physicians and nurses) to take advantage of the knowledge the discipline has generated, when treating patients. Health psychologists work in a variety of settings: alongside other medical professionals in hospitals and clinics, in public health departments working on large-scale behavior change and health promotion programs, and in universities and medical schools where they teach and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the field of clinical psychology, four different divisions within health psychology and one related field, occupational health psychology (OHP), have developed over time. The four divisions include clinical health psychology, public health psychology, community health psychology, and critical health psychology. Professional organizations for the field of health psychology include Division 38 of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Division of Health Psychology of the British Psychological Society (BPS), the European Health Psychology Society, and the College of Health Psychologists of the Australian Psychological Society (APS). Advanced credentialing in the US as a clinical health psychologist is provided through the American Board of Professional Psychology.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia. Atmospheric nitrogen or molecular nitrogen is relatively inert: it does not easily react with other chemicals to form new compounds. Fixation processes free up the nitrogen atoms from their diatomic form to be used in other ways. Nitrogen fixation, natural and synthetic, is essential for all forms of life because nitrogen is required to biosynthesize basic building blocks of plants, animals and other life forms, e.g., nucleotides for DNA and RNA and amino acids for proteins. Therefore nitrogen fixation is essential for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. It is also an important process in the manufacture of explosives. Nitrogen fixation occurs naturally in the air by means of lightning. Nitrogen fixation also refers to other biological conversions of nitrogen, such as its conversion to nitrogen dioxide. Microorganisms that can fix nitrogen are prokaryotes called diazotrophs. Some higher plants, and some animals, have formed associations with diazotrophs. Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by the German agronomist Hermann Hellriegel and Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck.
Alphatec Spine, Inc., a medical device company, designs, develops, and manufactures products for the surgical treatment of spine disorders, with a focus on treating conditions affecting the aging spine. It offers thoracolumbar products, such as pedicle screw based semi-rigid rods designed to be part of an adjunct to fusion construct, as well as posterior thoracolumbar access, spinal fixation, anterior lumbar plating, pedicle screw, and lumbar fixation systems; cervico-thoracic products, including occipital fixation systems, posterior cervico-thoracic fixation systems with adjustable bridges, and anterior cervical plating systems; and interbody products, such as cervical interbody and vertebral body replacement systems, as well as anterior, posterior, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion systems. The company also provides biologics, including demineralized bone matrix and scaffolds, biologic and structural allograft products, cervical allograft systems, and amniotic tissue barriers; minimally invasive (MIS) solutions, such as MIS posterior fixation systems and spinous process fixation systems; spinal fracture reduction and fixation systems, and interspinous spacer systems for aging spines; and spinal fracture reduction systems. It offers its products in the United States. The company also markets its products through a direct salesforce in France, Italy, and the United Kingdom; independent distributors in the rest of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, South America, and Latin America; subsidiaries in Asia and Australia; distributors in China, Korea, and Australia; and an affiliate internationally. Alphatec Spine, Inc. was formerly known as Alphatec Manufacturing, Inc. The company was founded in 1990 and is headquartered in Carlsbad, California. It has locations in Tokyo, Japan; Kowloon, Hong Kong; Voisins le Bretonneux and Beaurains, France; Oxford, United Kingdom; and Engen, Germany. Alphatec Spine, Inc. operates as a subsidiary of Alphatec Holdings, Inc.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire life span. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes; cognitive development involving areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. Developmental psychology includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures, versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, and environmental factors including social context, and their impact on development; others take a more narrowly-focused approach. Developmental psychology informs several applied fields, including: educational psychology, child psychopathology, and forensic developmental psychology. Developmental psychology complements several other basic research fields in psychology including social psychology, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and comparative psychology.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviours could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context. There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant, and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophical dualism in regards to the mind body problem. There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders. Abnormal includes three different categories, they are subnormal, supernormal and paranormal. The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviours: adaptive and maladaptive behaviours. Behaviours that are maladaptive suggest that some problem exist, and can also imply that the individual is vulnerable and cannot cope with environmental stress, which is leading them to have problems functioning in daily life. Clinical psychology is the applied field of psychology that seeks to assess, understand and treat psychological conditions in clinical practice. The theoretical field known as 'abnormal psychology' may form a backdrop to such work, but clinical psychologists in the current field are unlikely to use the term 'abnormal' in reference to their practice. Psychopathology is a similar term to abnormal psychology but has more of an implication of an underlying pathology, and as such is a term more commonly used in the medical specialty known as psychiatry.
In cell biology, pyrenoids are organelles, centers of carbon dioxide fixation within the chloroplasts of algae and hornworts. Pyrenoids are not membrane-bound, but specialized areas of the plastid that contain high levels of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. RubisCO fixes carbon dioxide by adding it to the 5-carbon sugar-phosphate, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, yielding two molecules of the 3-carbon compound, 3-phosphoglycerate. In a competing reaction, the enzyme uses oxygen to break down ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate to phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate, with no net fixation of carbon. In some organisms, the concentration of RubisCO in the pyrenoid is so high that the contents of the organelle assume a crystalline appearance. Complex pyrenoids are highly differentiated areas of chloroplast surrounded by a thick starch sheath. The pyrenoid may serve to aid the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide by preventing diffusion away from the site of fixation while simultaneously reducing the level of oxygen at the site of CO2 fixation. Excessive CO2 can also inhibit the carbon fixation reaction catalysed by RubisCO. Pyrenoids are not found in higher plants and it is thought that the slower rate of diffusion of carbon dioxide in water compared to air favors their presence in these small submerged organisms.
In psychology, discrimination learning is the process by which animals or people learn to make different responses to different stimuli. It was a classic topic in the psychology of learning from the 1920s to the 1970s, and was particularly investigated within: ⁕comparative psychology, where a key issue was whether continuous or discontinuous learning processes were concerned in the acquisition of discriminations ⁕human cognitive psychology ⁕the experimental analysis of behaviour, where a key issue was whether discriminations could be trained without the necessity for the subject to make errors ⁕developmental psychology, where a key issue was the changes that occur in the process of discrimination as a function of age ⁕cross-cultural psychology, where a key issue was the role that the cultural appropriateness of the stimuli to be discriminated played in the rate of acquisition of effective discrimination ⁕mathematical psychology, where attempts were made to formalise the distinctions being drawn in other branches of psychology. While interest in the learning of discriminations has continued in all those fields, from about 1980 onwards the phrase "discrimination learning" was used less often as the main description either of individual studies or of a field of investigation. Instead, investigations of the learning of discriminations have tended to be described in other terms such as pattern recognition or concept discrimination. This change partly reflects the increasing diversity of studies of discrimination, and partly the general expansion of the topic of cognition within psychology, so that learning is not now the central organizing topic that it was in the mid-20th century.
|Doctor of Psychology|
Doctor of Psychology
The Doctor of Psychology (usually Psy.D., sometimes PsychD) is a professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for practice in psychotherapy and psychological testing. Earning the degree was originally completed through one of two established training models for clinical psychology. However, Psy.D. programs are no longer limited to Clinical Psychology as several universities and professional schools have begun to award professional doctorates in Business Psychology, Organizational Development, Forensic Psychology, Counseling Psychology, and School Psychology.The degree is usually abbreviated as Psy.D. in the United States and Canada and also D.Psy. or D.Ps. in Canada. Universities that have issued (or, rarely, still issue) their degrees written in New Latin use Psychologiae Doctor or Doctor Psychologiae, which, especially in continental Europe, is sometimes notated with the postnominals Dr. psychol. or Dr. psych. In Denmark and Italy, the corresponding degree is called "Specialist" ("Specialist Psychologist", with the domain added) or "Specialpsykolog" (Special Psychologist).
Coapt Systems, Inc. engages in the design, development, manufacture, and marketing of bio-absorbable implants for use in soft tissue fixation during facial cosmetic surgery procedures. It offers ENDOTINE Forehead 3.0, a bioabsorbable brow fixation device; ENDOTINE Forehead Instrument Kits that comprise insertion tools, drill bits, and sterilization trays with lids; ENDOTINE Triple 3.0, the bioabsorbable brow fixation devices with disposable drill bits and insertion tools; ENDOTINE TransBleph 3.0, a bioabsorbable upper lid and brow fixation devices. The company also provides ENDOTINE Midface ST 4.5, a bioabsorbable midface suspension devices; ENDOTINE Ribbon, a bioabsorbable fixation devices; Coapt Manual Surgical Drills, the manual surgical hand drills for use with ENDOTINE implants; and SurgiWire Incisionless Dissectors, the subcutaneous The Endotine product line was bought by MicroAire, a surgical device manufacturer in Charlottesville, VA, in August 2010.
-al, sī′kik, -al, adj. pertaining to the soul, or living principle in man: spiritual: pertaining to the mind, or to its faculties and functions.—ns. Psy′che, the personified soul or spirit: the human soul or spirit or mind: a genus of bombycid moths: a cheval-glass; Psychī′ater, Psychī′atrist, one who treats diseases of the mind, an alienist; Psychī′atry, the treatment of mental diseases; Psy′chic, a spiritualistic medium; Psy′chics, the science of psychology; Psy′chism, the doctrine that there is a universal soul animating all living beings; Psy′chist; Psychogen′esis, Psychog′eny, the origination and development of the soul; Psychog′ony, the doctrine of the development of mind; Psy′chograph, an instrument used for so-called spirit-writing.—adj. Psychograph′ic.—n. Psychog′raphy, the natural history of mind: supposed spirit-writing by the hand of a medium.—adjs. Psycholog′ic, -al, pertaining to psychology: pertaining to the mind.—adv. Psycholog′ically.—v.i. Psychol′ogise.—ns. Psychol′ogist, one who studies psychology; Psychol′ogy, the science which classifies and analyses the phenomena or varying states of the human mind; Psychom′achy, a conflict of soul with body; Psy′chomancy, necromancy; Psychom′etry, the science of the measurement of the duration, &c., of mental processes: an occult power claimed by some charlatans of divining the secret properties of things by mere contact.—adj. Psy′chomōtor, pertaining to such mental action as induces muscular contraction.—ns. Psychoneurol′ogy, that part of neurology which deals with mental action; Psychoneurō′sis, mental disease without apparent anatomical lesion; Psychon′omy, the science of the laws of mental action; Psychonosol′ogy, the branch of medical science that treats of mental diseases; Psychopan′nychism, the theory that at death the soul falls asleep till the resurrection; Psychopan′nychist; Psychopar′esis, mental weakness; Psy′chopath, a morally irresponsible person; Psychop′athist, an alienist; Psychop′athy, derangement of mental functions.—adj. Psy′cho-phys′ical.—ns. Psy′cho-phys′icist; Psy′cho-physiol′ogy, Psy′cho-phys′ics, the knowledge of the manifold correspondences of the most intimate and exact kind that exist between states and changes of consciousness on the one hand, and states and changes of brain on the other—the concomitance being apparently complete as respects
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. The American Psychological Association defines cognitive psychology as "The study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking." Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study including social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and educational psychology.
School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents. School psychologists are educated in psychology, child and adolescent development, child and adolescent psychopathology, education, family and parenting practices, learning theories, and personality theories. They are knowledgeable about effective instruction and effective schools. They are trained to carry out psychological testing and psychoeducational assessment, counseling, and consultation, and in the ethical, legal and administrative codes of their profession.
Anti-psychology describes the resistance, suspicion, and hostility that some people feel towards psychological treatment. It is not a wholly accurate term, as critics tend to focus on psychological intervention in cases of mental illness rather than on psychology as a science, which covers a broad and diverse spectrum of topics. Some critics of psychology deny that mental illness exists at all, arguing that psychology aims to pathologise perfectly normal variations in human behaviour; whereas others accept the existence of mental illness but state that current mainstream psychological interventions are ineffective at best and unethical at worst. Critiques against the application of psychology in its entirety often stem from moral objections to the degradation of the psyche through reductive systematic categorization. In this context the term "anti-psychology" may describe discontent with the incorporation of psychological tenets and techniques into religious practice. It may also describe the view that psychological manipulation affects the sovereignty of cognitive processes, corrupting free will. Psychology applied in this manner is readily discerned in advertising.