Synonyms containing habitat fragmentation
We've found 974 synonyms:
In computer storage, fragmentation is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity and often performance. Fragmentation leads to storage space being "wasted", and the term also refers to the wasted space itself. There are three different but related forms of fragmentation: external fragmentation, internal fragmentation, and data fragmentation, which can be present in isolation or conjunction. Fragmentation is often accepted in return for improvements in speed or simplicity.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species present. In this process, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. Habitat destruction by human activity is mainly for the purpose of harvesting natural resources for industry production and urbanization. Clearing habitats for agriculture is the principal cause of habitat destruction. Other important causes of habitat destruction include mining, logging, trawling and urban sprawl. Habitat destruction is currently ranked as the primary cause of species extinction worldwide. It is a process of natural environmental change that may be caused by habitat fragmentation, geological processes, climate change or by human activities such as the introduction of invasive species, ecosystem nutrient depletion, and other human activities mentioned below. The terms "habitat loss" and "habitat reduction" are also used in a wider sense, including loss of habitat from other factors, such as water and noise pollution.
Habitat fragmentation, as the name implies, describes the emergence of discontinuities in an organism's preferred environment, causing population fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation can be caused by geological processes that slowly alter the layout of the physical environment, or by human activity such as land conversion, which can alter the environment much faster and causes extinctions of many species.
The madanga or rufous-throated white-eye (Anthus ruficollis) is a species of bird that was formerly included in the family Zosteropidae but is now thought to be an atypical member of the family Motacillidae, consisting of the pipits and wagtails. Its close relatives are tree pipits of the genus Anthus, and is endemic to the moist, mountainous, subtropical and tropical forest of the Indonesian island Buru. The bird was initially described from four specimens collected in April 1922 from one area in the western part of the island, near the settlement Wa Fehat, at elevations between 820 m (2,690 ft) and 1,500 m (4,900 ft). These observations were reproduced on two birds in December 1995 at Wakeika, at elevation of 1,460 m (4,790 ft); changes in the bird's habitat at Wa Fehat were also noted in 1995. The bird was observed only in a few localities and neither its habitat area nor population are reliably known. The population is estimated at more than several hundred individuals, and the habitat at several hundreds km2 from the available area above 1,200 meters (872 km²) and above 1,500 m (382 km²); the birds are believed to disperse over their habitat rather than form groups. Because the species are restricted to a single island and its habitat is threatened by logging and other human activities, it is listed as endangered by the IUCN since 1996.The madanga most likely eats small invertebrates recovered from bark and lichen. The bird has distinct coloration and body features, namely lack of a white eye-ring; longer toes, wing and tail, and the pointed shape of the rectrices (part of the tail).A 2015 DNA analysis indicates the species is more closely related to the pipits than the white-eyes, and some taxonomic authorities now tend to regard it as being a member of the family Motacillidae within the clade containing pipits in the genus Anthus.
Amolops (commonly known as cascade frogs or sucker frogs) is a genus of true frogs (family Ranidae) native mainly to eastern and south-eastern Asia. These frogs are closely related to such genera as Huia, Meristogenys, Odorrana, Pelohylax and Rana, but still form a distinct lineage among the core radiation of true frogs. They are commonly known as "torrent frogs" after their favorite habitat - small rapid-flowing mountain and hill streams - but this name is used for many similar-looking frogs regardless of whether they are loosely related. Several species are highly convergent with other Ranidae "torrent frogs". A. archotaphus and its relatives for example very much resemble Odorrana livida. In another incidence of convergent evolution yielding adaptation to habitat, the tadpoles of Amolops, Huia, Meristogenys as well as Rana sauteri have a raised and usually well-developed sucker on their belly. This is useful in keeping in place in rocky torrents, where these frogs grow up. But as Odorrana and Staurois from comparable habitat prove, this sucker is by no means a necessity and other means of adaptation to torrent habitat exist.
Describing a moist habitat, or an organism adapted to such a habitat
The Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant, and native to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. In 2011, IUCN upgraded the conservation status of the Sumatran elephant from endangered to critically endangered in its Red List as the population had declined by at least 80% during the past three generations, estimated to be about 75 years. The subspecies is preeminently threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, and poaching; over 69% of potential elephant habitat has been lost within the last 25 years. Much of the remaining forest cover is in blocks smaller than 250 km2 (97 sq mi), which are too small to contain viable elephant populations.
Pekarangan is a type of tropical home garden that has been developed in Indonesia, mainly in Java. It is composed of various elements, among them are plants of diverse use and height, animals (including fish, ruminants, poultry, and wild animals), as well as constructions such as an animal pen and a bird cage. It is also a platform of social interactions and yield sharing, and provide needs for cultural ceremonies and religious practices. Some pekarangans are made, maintained, and spatially arranged, based on local values. Home gardens of its kind may have existed as far back as several millennia BCE, but the first record of it is found in a Javanese chronicle from 860 AD. In 2010, around 103,000 square kilometres (40,000 sq mi) of Indonesian land were used as gardens of the sort. Sustainability and social roles of pekaranangans have been threatened by fragmentation (due to inheritance), urbanization, and commercialization throughout the late 20th century and the 21st century. Smaller land dwellings due to fragmentation and urbanization cause their size and plant diversity to decrease in average. Meanwhile, deliberate reduction of plant diversity was implemented to optimize profitable yields' production. Bad consequences have appeared due to the degradation of sustainability, such as pest outbreaks and a rise in debts as a means to manage said production. Throughout the history of Java, they are a subject of little interest to various governments that have ruled the island due to their minimal susceptibility to yield extraction. However, in the 2010's, they have become a subject of attention of the Indonesian government; the attention is implemented in P2KP, a program focused on urban and peri-urban areas that aims to optimize their production with a sustainable approach.
An alvar is a biological environment based on a limestone plain with thin or no soil and, as a result, sparse grassland vegetation. Often flooded in the spring, and affected by drought in midsummer, alvars support a distinctive group of prairie-like plants. Most alvars occur either in northern Europe or around the Great Lakes in North America. This stressed habitat supports a community of rare plants and animals, including species more commonly found on prairie grasslands. Lichen and mosses are common species. Trees and bushes are absent or severely stunted. The primary cause of alvars is the shallow exposed bedrock. Flooding and drought, as noted, add to the stress of the site and prevent many species from growing. Disturbance may also play a role. In Europe, grazing is frequent, while in North America, there is some evidence that fire may also prevent encroachment by forest. The habitat also has strong competition gradients, with better competitors occupying the deeper soil and excluding other species to less productive locations. Crevices in the limestone provide a distinctive habitat which is somewhat protected from grazing, and which may provide habitat for unusual ferns such as Pellaea atropurpurea. Bare rock flats provide areas with extremely low competition that serve as refugia for weak competitors such as Minuartia michauxii and Micranthes virginiensis. In a representative set of four Ontario alvars, seven habitat types were described. From deep to shallow soil these were: tall grassy meadows, tall forb-rich meadows, low grassy meadows, low forb-rich meadows, dry grassland, rock margin grassland and bare rock flats.
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3 m and weighing up to 306 kg. It is the third largest land carnivore. Its most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. It has exceptionally stout teeth, and the canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of as much as 74.5 mm or even 90 mm. In zoos, tigers have lived for 20 to 26 years, which also seems to be their longevity in the wild. They are territorial and generally solitary but social animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey requirements. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans. Tigers once ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from southwest and central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia. Today, they range from the Siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by IUCN. The global population in the wild is estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. The extent of area occupied by tigers is estimated at less than 1,184,911 km², a 41% decline from the area estimated in the mid-1990s.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation.Norman Myers wrote about the concept in two articles in “The Environmentalist” (1988), and 1990 revised after thorough analysis by Myers and others “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions” and a paper published in the journal Nature.To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation. Around the world, 36 areas qualify under this definition. These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of those species as endemics. Some of these hotspots support up to 15,000 endemic plant species and some have lost up to 95% of their natural habitat.Biodiversity hotspots host their diverse ecosystems on just 2.3% of the planet's surface, however, the area defined as hotspots covers a much larger proportion of the land. The original 25 hotspots covered 11.8% of the land surface area of the Earth. Overall, the current hotspots cover more than 15.7% of the land surface area, but have lost around 85% of their habitat. This loss of habitat explains why approximately 60% of the world's terrestrial life lives on only 2.3% of the land surface area.
a yellowish beetle (Doryphora decemlineata), with ten longitudinal, black, dorsal stripes. It has migrated eastwards from its original habitat in Colorado, and is very destructive to the potato plant; -- called also potato beetle and potato bug. See Potato beetle
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the locality where a thing is usually found, or was first found, or where it is naturally abundant; habitat; seat; as, the home of the pine
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of or pertaining to a region of the earth's surface including all of temperate and arctic North America and Greenland. In the geographical distribution of animals, this region is marked off as the habitat certain species
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the particular place, or kind of situation, in which a species naturally occurs; a habitat
— Webster Dictionary