Synonyms containing overstimulation
We've found 5 synonyms:
An excessive excitation; overstimulation
an action induced by vital resistance to some other action; depression or exhaustion of vital force consequent on overexertion or overstimulation; heightened activity and overaction succeeding depression or shock
— Webster Dictionary
Self-stimulatory behavior, also known as stimming and self-stimulation, is the repetition of physical movements, sounds, words, or moving objects. These behaviors are common in individuals with developmental disabilities and most prevalent in those on the autism spectrum. Individuals diagnosed with sensory processing disorder are also known to potentially exhibit stimming behaviors. Stimming is considered a protective response to overstimulation, in which people calm themselves by blocking less predictable environmental stimuli, to which they have a heightened sensitivity. Another theory is that stimming is a way to relieve anxiety and other negative or heightened emotions.Stimming behaviors can consist of tactile, visual, auditory, olfactory, and vestibular stimming. Some common examples of stimming (sometimes called stims) include hand flapping, rocking, excessive or hard blinking, pacing, head banging, repeating noises or words, snapping fingers, and spinning objects.Stimming is almost always present in individuals on the autism spectrum, but does not necessarily indicate its presence. The biggest difference between autistic and non-autistic stimming is the type of stim and the quantity of stimming. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, stimming behavior is described as "stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms" and listed as one of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Different perspectives suggest that stimming involves both sensory and motor functions. Insufficiencies in these sensorimotor functions can result in stimming behaviors produced by the individual as a controllable response.Most individuals in the autistic community oppose attempts to reduce or eliminate stimming, as it is an important tool for self-regulation, and contend that attempts to stop people from stimming could be potentially harmful.However, stimming can sometimes be self-injurious, such as when it involves head-banging, hand-biting, excessive self-rubbing, and scratching. While it is difficult to stop stimming entirely, there are many ways to reduce time spent stimming and create safer stimming habits for an individual. Managing the sensory and emotional environment while increasing the amount of daily exercise can increase personal comfort levels of the individual, which may reduce the amount of time spent stimming. Things such as puzzles, fidget spinners, stress and fidget toys can also be used to help instill safe stimming habits.
Autonomic dysreflexia, also known as autonomic hyperreflexia, is a potentially life threatening condition which can be considered a medical emergency requiring immediate attention. AD occurs most often in spinal cord-injured individuals with spinal lesions above the T6 spinal cord level; although, it has been known to occur in patients with a lesion as low as T10. Acute AD is a reaction of the autonomic nervous system to overstimulation. It is characterised by severe paroxysmal hypertension associated with throbbing headaches, profuse sweating, nasal stuffiness, flushing of the skin above the level of the lesion, bradycardia, apprehension and anxiety, which is sometimes accompanied by cognitive impairment. The sympathetic discharge that occurs is usually in association with spinal cord injury or disease. AD is believed to be triggered by afferent stimuli which originate below the level of the spinal cord lesion. It is believed that these afferent stimuli trigger and maintain an increase in blood pressure via a sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction in muscle, skin and splanchnic vascular beds.
Execution by electrocution, usually performed using an electric chair, is an execution method originating in the United States in which the condemned person is strapped to a specially built wooden chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. This execution method was created by employees of Thomas Edison during the War of Currents, and has been used only in the United States and, for a period of several decades, in the Philippines. Historically, once the condemned person was attached to the chair, various cycles of alternating current would be passed through the individual's body, in order to cause fatal damage to the internal organs. The first jolt of electric current was designed to cause immediate unconsciousness and brain death; the second one was designed to cause fatal damage to the vital organs. Death was frequently caused by electrical overstimulation of the heart. Although in the United States the electric chair has become a symbol of the death penalty, its use is in decline due to the rise of lethal injection, which is widely believed to be a more humane method of execution. Although some states still maintain electrocution as a method of execution, today it is only maintained as a secondary method that may be chosen over lethal injection at the request of the prisoner. As of 2010, electrocution is an optional form of execution in Alabama, Florida, South Carolina and Virginia. They allow the prisoner to choose lethal injection as an alternative method. In the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, the electric chair has been retired except for those whose capital crimes were committed prior to legislated dates in 1998 and who chose electrocution. In both states, inmates who do not choose electrocution or inmates who committed their crimes after the designated date are killed by lethal injection. The electric chair is an alternate form of execution approved for potential use in Arkansas and Oklahoma if other forms of execution are found unconstitutional in the state at the time of execution. It is the sole method of execution in Vermont, where treason is the only capital crime. On February 8, 2008, the Nebraska Supreme Court determined that execution by electric chair was a "cruel and unusual punishment" under the state's constitution. This brought executions of this type to an end in Nebraska, the only remaining state to retain electrocution as its sole method of execution for murder.