Synonyms containing press in
We've found 1,798 synonyms:
pres, n. an instrument for squeezing bodies: a printing-machine: the art or business of printing and publishing: act of urging forward: urgency: strong demand: a crowd: a closet for holding articles.—ns. Press′-bed, a bed enclosed in a cupboard, or folding up into it; Press′fat (B.), the vat of an olive or wine press for collecting the liquor; Press′man, one who works a printing-press: a journalist or reporter: a member of a pressgang; Press′mark, a mark upon a book to show its place among others in a library; Press′-room, a room where printing-presses are worked; Press′-work, the operation of taking impressions from type or plates by means of the printing-press.—Press of sail, as much sail as can be carried.—Brahmah press, a hydraulic press called after Mr Brahmah, its inventor; Cylinder press, a printing-press in which the types are laid on a cylinder which revolves, instead of on a flat surface; Hydraulic press (see Hydraulic); Liberty of the press, the right of publishing books, &c., without submitting them to a government authority for permission; The Press, the literature of a country, esp. its newspapers.
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty, and in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century. Gutenberg's most important innovation was the development of hand-molded metal printing matrices, thus producing a movable type based printing press system. His newly devised hand mould made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. Movable type had been hitherto unknown in Europe. In Europe, the two inventions, the hand mould and the printing press, together drastically reduced the cost of printing books and other documents, particularly in short print runs. The printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes. In the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies. The operation of a press became synonymous with the enterprise of printing, and lent its name to a new medium of expression and communication, "the press".In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities. The sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its peoples led to the rise of proto-nationalism, and accelerated by the development of European vernacular languages, to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale.
Press Conference was a public-affairs television series aired in the United States in the mid-1950s. Press Conference was similar in format and content to the long-running Meet the Press and was moderated by one of that program's creators, pioneering female journalist Martha Rountree. On the program, a current newsmaker, generally but not always a politician, was questioned by a panel of newspersons in a typical press conference format. As usually done in a traditional press conference, the subject was allowed to make an opening statement prior to fielding questions. Press Conference was launched on NBC in July 1956, but that fall moved to ABC. Initially shown in prime time, the program drew only a minimal, public-affairs oriented audience running against two high-profile Sunday night variety series, The Ed Sullivan Show on CBS and The Steve Allen Show on NBC; however, its appearance helped ABC to meet the public-interest requirements imposed on U.S broadcasters by the Federal Communications Commission. Press Conference was moved to Sunday afternoon for three months in early 1957, prior to returning to prime time in April of that year under a new title, Martha Rountree's Press Conference. The program ended in July 1957.
The press box is a special section of a sports stadium or arena that is set up for the media to report about a given event. It is typically located in the section of the stadium holding the luxury box. In general, newspaper writers sit in this box and write about the on-field event as it unfolds. Television and radio announcers broadcast from the press box as well. The press box is considered to be a working area, and writers, broadcasters, and other visitors to press boxes are constantly reminded of this fact at sporting events. Cheering is strictly forbidden in press boxes, and anyone violating rules against showing favoritism for either team is subject to ejection from the press box by security personnel. The rule against cheering is generally enforced only in the writers' area of the press box, as broadcasters are often employed by one of the teams involved. A "scratched" or injured player can be said to be "watching from the press box".
The press gallery is the part of a parliament, or other legislative body, where political journalists are allowed to sit or gather to observe and then report speeches and events. This is generally one of the galleries overlooking the floor of the house and can also include separate offices in the legislative or parliamentary buildings accorded to the various media outlets, such as occurs with the Strangers Gallery in the British House of Commons or the Canberra Press Gallery in the Australian Parliament. The United States Senate established its first press gallery in 1841, and both the House of Representatives and Senate set aside galleries for reporters when they moved into their current chambers in 1857 and 1859. The press galleries in Congress are operated by superintendents, appointed by the House and Senate sergeants at arms, and by Standing Committees of Correspondents, elected by the journalists. The first Standing Committee of Correspondents was created in 1879 to eliminate lobbyists from the press galleries. With the approval of House and Senate leaders, reporters drafted a set of requirements for accreditation. Press passes were issued only to those whose primary source of income was journalism, and who reported by telegraph to a daily newspaper. The rules eliminated lobbyists, but also women and minorities. Nineteenth-century women reporters were confined to social news coverage, which did not justify the cost of telegraphing. African American reporters were limited to the black press, which were then all weekly papers. Not until the 1940s did women and minorities overcome these obstacles.
A garlic press is a kitchen utensil to crush garlic cloves efficiently by forcing them through a grid of small holes, usually with some type of piston. Many garlic presses also have a device with a matching grid of blunt pins to clean out the holes. Garlic presses present a convenient alternative to mincing garlic with a knife, especially because a clove of garlic can be passed through a sturdy press without even removing its peel. The peel remains in the press while the garlic is extruded out. Some sources also claim that pressing with the peel on makes cleaning the press easier. Garlic crushed by a press is generally believed to have a different flavor from minced garlic; since more cell walls are broken, more of garlic's strong flavor compounds are liberated. A few sources prefer the flavor of pressed garlic. Raw-foods chef Renée Underkoffler says "a good garlic press makes dealing with garlic a clean pleasure. Pressed garlic has a lighter, more delicate flavor than minced garlic because it excludes the bitter center stem." The magazine Cook's Illustrated says "a good garlic press can break down cloves more finely and evenly than an average cook using a knife, which means better distribution of garlic flavor throughout any given dish."
A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy. Typically, they are mailed, faxed, or e-mailed to assignment editors at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television stations, or television networks. Tom Kelleher states in his book, Public Relations Online: Lasting Concepts for Changing Media, that "given that your news-driven publics include bona fide journalists as well as others who read and report news online, the term news release seems to work better online than press release". Fraser Seitel also refers to press releases as being, "the granddaddy of public relations writing vehicles." Websites have changed the way press releases are submitted. Commercial, fee-based press release distribution services, such as news wire services, or free website services co-exist, making news distribution more affordable and leveling the playing field for smaller businesses. Such websites hold a repository of press releases and claim to make a company's news more prominent on the web and searchable via major search engines.
The leg press is a weight training exercise in which the individual pushes a weight or resistance away from them using their legs. The term leg press also refers to the apparatus used to perform this exercise. The leg press can be used to evaluate an athlete's overall lower body strength. There are two main types of leg press: ⁕The diagonal or vertical 'sled' type leg press. Weight disks are attached directly to the sled, which is mounted on rails. The user sits below the sled and pushes it upward with their feet. These machines normally include adjustable safety brackets that prevent the user from being trapped under the weight. ⁕The 'cable' type leg press, or 'seated leg press', commonly found on multigyms. The user sits upright and pushes forward with their feet onto a plate that is attached to the weight stack by means of a long steel cable.
Alan Bjerga (born 1973) is an American journalist, author of the book Endless Appetites: How the Commodities Casino Creates Hunger and Unrest. He also covers global food policy for Bloomberg News and is a journalism instructor at Georgetown University, where in 2016 he received a department award for dedication to student learning. In 2010 he served as president of the National Press Club and was president of the North American Agricultural Journalists in 2010-2011. He has been recognized for his work with awards from the Society of American Business Editors and Writers, the New York Press Club, the Kansas Press Association, the North American Agricultural Journalists, and the Overseas Press Club. He has commented on food and agriculture for Bloomberg Television, National Public Radio, the BBC and PBS Newshour, among other programs. Bjerga won the NAAJ's top writing award in 2005 while working for the Knight-Ridder Washington Bureau, where as a Midwest correspondent also covered foreign policy issues including defense contracting and intelligence related to the Iraq war.Bjerga, who grew up on a farm near the town of Motley, Minnesota, went to Concordia College (Minnesota) where he earned a bachelor's degree in history and English literature and edited the student newspaper, The Concordian. He earned a master's degree in mass communication from the University of Minnesota, where he was the managing editor of The Minnesota Daily. In 2012 he was an inaugural winner of the university's award for outstanding journalism alumni under 40, and in 2013 received Concordia College's annual "Sent Forth" award given to an outstanding young alumnus.Bjerga began his career with the St. Paul Pioneer Press (Minn.) and also reported for the Sioux Falls (S.D.) Argus Leader and The Wichita Eagle (Kan.).Alan Bjerga was a contestant on the game show, "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?" where he won $50,000. He was a second-place finisher on Jeopardy!' At his National Press Club inaugural on January 30, 2010, he played guitar and sang lead vocals with "Honky Tonk Confidential", a retro/alt country band with songs written by former CBS Face the Nation anchor, Bob Schieffer. He has also competed for the standup comedy title of "DC's Funniest Journalist."
kom-pres′, v.t. to press together: to force into a narrower space: to condense or concentrate.—n. Com′press, soft folds of linen, &c., formed into a pad, and used in surgery to apply any requisite pressure to any part: a wet cloth, covered with waterproof, applied to the skin.—adj. Compressed′.—ns. Compressibil′ity, Compres′sibleness, the property that bodies have of being reduced in volume by pressure—the ratio of the amount of compression per unit volume to the compressing force applied.—adj. Compres′sible, that may be compressed.—n. Compres′sion, act of compressing: state of being compressed, condensation.—adjs. Compres′sional; Compres′sive, able to compress.—ns. Compres′sor, anything that compresses; a muscle that compresses certain parts; Compres′sure.—Compressed-air bath, a strong chamber of iron plates in which a patient can sit, and into which air is driven by a steam-engine to any required pressure; Compressed-air motor, any mode of employing air as a motive-power, as in automatic railway-brakes, &c. [L. compressāre, com, together, and pressāre, to press—premĕre, pressum, to press.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
|History of the wine press|
History of the wine press
The history of the wine press and of pressing is nearly as old as the history of wine itself with the remains of wine presses providing some of the longest-serving evidence of organized viticulture and winemaking in the ancient world. The earliest wine press was likely the human foot or hand, crushing and squeezing grapes into a bag or container where the contents would ferment. The pressure applied by these manual means was limited and these early wines were likely pale in color and body and eventually ancient winemakers sought out alternative means of pressing their wine. By at least the 18th dynasty, the ancient Egyptians were employing a "sack press" made of cloth that was squeezed with the aid of a giant tourniquet. The use of a wine press in winemaking is mentioned frequently in the Bible but these presses were more elaboration of treading lagars where grapes that were tread by feet with the juice running off into special basins. The more modern idea of a piece of a winemaking equipment used to extract the juice from the skins likely emerged during the Greco-Roman periods where written accounts by Cato the Elder, Marcus Terentius Varro, Pliny the Elder and others described wooden wine presses that utilized large beams, capstans and windlasses to exert pressure on the pomace. The wines produced by these presses were usually darker, with more color extracted from the skins but could also be more harsh with bitter tannins also extracted. That style of wine press would eventually evolve into the basket press used in the Middle Ages by wine estates of the nobility and Catholic Church leading to the modern tank batch and continuous presses used in wineries today.
The Presseabteilung was a press department created shortly after the German occupation of Norway in April 1940. Through the department, Germans controlled the content of Norwegian newspapers. Both the Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling and the Norwegian Ministry of Culture and Enlightenment wanted to control newspapers, but the German occupants used the press department to get the final power of decision. The department consisted of bureaus for general press policy, daily newspapers, illustrated press, culture and economy journalism, news and information. The work was based on political control of the press, meaning direct interference, closing, firing of editors and journalists, and even arrests. Oslo papers that were being published got the messages of what to print through the daily press conferences, other papers got classified daily orders by telephone or teleprinter, the latter an innovation brought to Norwegian newspapers by the Germans. Orders went into detail about how the occupant power wanted each piece of news handled, as well as what events were not to be covered at all. NS papers were also established. The largest and best known was Fritt Folk, which took over the offices of Arbeiderbladet after this Oslo paper was closed down in August 1940.
to urge, or act upon, with force, as weight; to act upon by pushing or thrusting, in distinction from pulling; to crowd or compel by a gradual and continued exertion; to bear upon; to squeeze; to compress; as, we press the ground with the feet when we walk; we press the couch on which we repose; we press substances with the hands, fingers, or arms; we are pressed in a crowd
— Webster Dictionary
A hydraulic press is a device (see machine press) using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, and was also known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England. He invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795. As Bramah (who is also known for his development of the flush toilet) installed toilets, he studied the existing literature on the motion of fluids and put this knowledge into the development of the press.
In journalism and public relations, a news embargo or press embargo is a request or requirement by a source that the information or news provided by that source not be published until a certain date or certain conditions have been met. They are often used by businesses making a product announcement, by medical journals, and by government officials announcing policy initiatives; the media is given advance knowledge of details being held secret so that reports can be prepared to coincide with the announcement date and yet still meet press time. In theory, press embargoes reduce inaccuracy in the reporting of breaking stories by reducing the incentive for journalists to cut corners by writing up information quickly in hopes of "scooping" the competition. The understanding is that if the embargo is broken by reporting before then, the source will retaliate by restricting access to further information by that journalist or their publication, giving them a long-term disadvantage relative to more cooperative outlets. Embargoes are usually arranged in advance as "gentlemen's agreements." However, sometimes publicists will send embargoed press releases to newsrooms unsolicited in hopes that they will respect the embargo date without having first agreed to do so—the phrase "For Immediate Release" often found at the top of press releases indicates that the information in the release is not embargoed. News organizations sometimes break embargoes and report information before the embargo expires, either accidentally (due to miscommunication in the newsroom) or intentionally (to get the jump on their competitors). Breaking an embargo is typically considered a serious breach of trust and can result in the source barring the offending news outlet from receiving advance information for a long period of time. News embargoes are one of several ways a source can influence media presentation of the information they provide; others include providing information "on background" or "not for attribution," limiting or providing "access," or even direct government or market intervention against the reporters or media company. (See confidentiality terminology in journalism for a full discussion of these.) The manner in which journalists react to these and other attempts to influence coverage are a matter of journalistic ethics. An example of an embargo being deliberately broken occurred on 19 July 2017. The television presenter and former tabloid editor Piers Morgan antagonised other journalists when he willingly breached a BBC news embargo. This was in connection with the publication of details of BBC presenters earning more than £150,000 annually. He announced the details via his Twitter account about an hour earlier than the report's indicated time of publication. He excused his action by describing it as a 'scoop'.