Synonyms containing reservoir, common
We've found 22,410 synonyms:
kom′un, adj. belonging equally to more than one: public: general: usual: frequent: ordinary: easy to be had: of little value: vulgar: of low degree.—n. (Shak.) the commonalty: a tract of open land, used in common by the inhabitants of a town, parish, &c.—v.i. (Shak.) to share.—adj. Common′able, held in common.—ns. Comm′onage, right of pasturing on a common: the right of using anything in common: a common; Comm′onalty, the general body of the people without any distinction of rank or authority; Comm′oner, one of the common people, as opposed to the nobles: a member of the House of Commons: at Oxford, a student who pays for his commons.—adv. Comm′only.—ns. Comm′onness; Comm′onplace, a common topic or subject: a platitude: a memorandum: a note.—adj. common: hackneyed.—v.i. to make notes: to put in a commonplace-book.—n. Comm′onplace-book, a note or memorandum book.—n.pl. Comm′ons, the common people: their representatives—i.e. the lower House of Parliament or House of Commons: common land: food at a common table: at Oxford, rations served at a fixed rate from the college buttery: food in general, rations.—n. Comm′on-sense, average understanding: good sense or practical sagacity: the opinion of a community: the universally admitted impressions of mankind.—Common Bench, Common Pleas, one of the divisions of the High Court of Justice; Common forms, the ordinary clauses which are of frequent occurrence in identical terms in writs and deeds; Common law, in England, the ancient customary law of the land; Common Prayer (Book of), the liturgy of the Church of England; Common-riding, the Scotch equivalent of Beating the Bounds (see Beat); Common room, in schools, colleges, &c., a room to which the members have common access.—In common, together: equally with others.—Make common cause with, to cast in one's lot with: to have the same interests and aims with.—Philosophy of common-sense, that school of philosophy which takes the universally admitted impressions of mankind as corresponding to the facts of things without any further scrutiny.—Short commons, scant fare, insufficient supply of rations.—The common, that which is common or usual; The common good, the interest of the community at large: the corporate property of a burgh in Scotland; The common people, the people in general. [Fr. commun—L. communis, prob. from com, together, and munis, serving, obliging.]
— Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
A dry sump is a lubricating motor oil management method for four-stroke and large two-stroke piston internal combustion engines that uses external pumps and a secondary external reservoir for oil, as compared to a conventional wet sump system. Four-stroke engines are both lubricated and cooled by oil which is circulated throughout the engine feeding the various bearings and other moving parts of the engine; and thereafter allowed to drain to the sump at the base of the engine under gravity. In most production automobiles, which use a wet sump system, this oil is simply collected in a 3 to 10 litres capacity pan at the base of the engine, known as the oil sump, where it is circulated back through the engine by an oil pump drawing, or "scavenging" from the sump's reservoir. This pump is mounted internally to the engine and is typically driven by the camshaft. In a dry sump, the oil still falls to the base of the engine, but rather than being allowed to collect in a reservoir style oil sump it falls into a much shallower sump where it is removed by one or more externally mounted scavenge pumps and is pumped into an external reservoir where it is both cooled and deaerated. These pumps are typically belt-driven from the front or back of the crankshaft. Oil is then drawn from this reservoir by the pressure pump and circulated through the engine. Typical dry sump systems have the pressure pump and scavenge pumps mounted on a common shaft so that one pulley at the front of the system can run as many pumps as required by the design of the engine. It is common practice to have one scavenge pump per crankcase section and in the case of a V-type engine an additional scavenge pump to remove oil being fed to the valve gear. Therefore, a V-8 engine would have five scavenge pumps and a pressure pump in the pump "stack".
The word siphon is sometimes used to refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes – see siphon terminology – but in the narrower sense it refers specifically to a tube in an inverted U shape which causes a liquid to flow uphill, above the surface of the reservoir, without pumps, powered by the fall of the liquid as it flows down the tube under the pull of gravity, and is discharged at a level lower than the surface of the reservoir it came from. Note that while the siphon must touch the liquid in the reservoir, it need not touch the liquid in the lower reservoir and indeed there need not be a lower reservoir – liquid can discharge into mid-air. In practical siphons, atmospheric pressure pushes the liquid up the tube into the region of reduced pressure at the top of the tube in the same way as a barometer, and indeed the maximum height of a siphon is the same as the height of a barometer, because they operate by the same mechanism. The reduced pressure is caused by liquid falling on the exit side. When both ends of a siphon are at atmospheric pressure, liquid flows from high to low. However, if the lower end is pressurized, liquid can flow from low to high, as in siphon coffee. While in everyday siphons, atmospheric pressure is the driving mechanism, in specialized circumstances other mechanisms can work – in the laboratory, some siphons have been demonstrated to work in a vacuum – see vacuum siphons – indicating the tensile strength of the liquid is contributing to the operation of siphons at very low pressures. Most familiar siphons have water as a fluid, though mercury is often used in experiments, and other fluids such as organic liquids or even carbon dioxide can be siphoned.
Lake Havasu is a large reservoir behind Parker Dam on the Colorado River, on the border between California and Arizona. Lake Havasu City sits on the lake's eastern shore. The reservoir has an available capacity of 619,400 acre feet.
— Editors Contribution
A sympiesometer is a compact and lightweight type of barometer that was widely used on ships in the 19th century. The sympiesometer consists of two parts. One is a traditional mercury thermometer that is needed to calculate the expansion or contraction of the fluid in the barometer proper. The other is the barometer, consisting of a J-shaped tube open at the lower end and closed at the top, with small reservoirs at both ends of the tube. The lower end of the J and its associated reservoir were filled with colored almond oil, while the upper portion and its reservoir were filled with hydrogen gas. Increasing air pressure would cause the oil to be pushed out of the lower reservoir and into the tube, compressing the hydrogen gas into the upper reservoir. The pressure was indicated by the position of the top of the oil. To correct for temperature, a sliding scale was used; the operator would first use the thermometer to set the scale and then measure the pressure from it. The basic idea is similar to the common weather glass that had been in use for some time, but the use of highly compressible hydrogen in a long, thin tube allowed much more accurate measurements, as changes in pressure resulted in much more movement of the liquid. The basic concept was initially demonstrated by Robert Hooke, which he referred to as the Otheometer. However it remained unused until it was re-introduced by Alexander Adie.
The town of Dolores is a Statutory Town in Montezuma County, Colorado, United States. The population was 936 at the 2010 census. It is one of three incorporated municipalities in the county. Dolores is located at the mouth of the Dolores Valley and the upper reaches of McPhee Reservoir, approximately 40 miles from the Four Corners Monument. Established as a station on the Rio Grande Southern Railroad, it replaced the earlier town, Big Bend, now covered by McPhee Reservoir. McPhee Reservoir is named for a company town founded by New Mexico Lumber Company, that is now covered by the reservoir.
Rybinsk Reservoir, informally called the Rybinsk Sea, is a water reservoir on the Volga River and its tributaries Sheksna and Mologa, formed by Rybinsk Hydroelectric Station dam, located on the territories of Tver, Vologda, and Yaroslavl Oblasts. At the time of its construction, it was the largest man-made body of water on Earth. It is the northernmost point of the Volga. The Volga-Baltic Waterway starts from there. The principal ports are Cherepovets in Vologda Oblast and Vesyegonsk in Tver Oblast. The construction of the dam in Rybinsk started in 1935. The filling of the reservoir started on April 14, 1941, and continued until 1947. Some 150,000 people had to be resettled elsewhere, and the historic town of Mologa in Yaroslavl Oblast along with 663 villages have completely disappeared under water. As the time goes by, however, it has been increasingly viewed as a typical sample of Stalinism. Today the dam is less important for electric power supply than it used to be, and the ecological damage caused by the reservoir is being reassessed. ⁕ ⁕
Petrophysics is the study of physical and chemical rock properties and their interactions with fluids. A major application of petrophysics is in studying reservoirs for the hydrocarbon industry. Petrophysicists are employed to help reservoir engineers and geoscientists understand the rock properties of the reservoir, particularly how pores in the subsurface are interconnected, controlling the accumulation and migration of hydrocarbons. Some of the key properties studied in petrophysics are lithology, porosity, water saturation, permeability and density. A key aspect of petrophysics is measuring and evaluating these rock properties by acquiring well log measurements - in which a string of measurement tools are inserted in the borehole, core measurements - in which rock samples are retrieved from subsurface, and seismic measurements. These studies are then combined with geological and geophysical studies and reservoir engineering to give a complete picture of the reservoir. While most petrophysicists work in the hydrocarbon industry, some also work in the mining and water resource industries. The properties measured or computed fall into three broad categories: conventional petrophysical properties, rock mechanical properties, and ore quality.
A fountain pen is a nib pen that, unlike its predecessor the dip pen, contains an internal reservoir of water-based liquid ink. The pen draws ink from the reservoir through a feed to the nib and deposits it on paper via a combination of gravity and capillary action. Filling the reservoir with ink may be achieved manually, or via an internal filling mechanism which creates suction to transfer ink directly through the nib into the reservoir. Some pens employ removable reservoirs in the form of pre-filled ink cartridges. A fountain pen needs little or no pressure to write.
The Delaware Aqueduct is the newest of the New York City aqueducts. It takes water from the Rondout Reservoir through the Chelsea Pump Station, the West Branch Reservoir, and the Kensico Reservoir, ending at the Hillview Reservoir in Yonkers, New York. The aqueduct was constructed between 1939 and 1945, and carries approximately half of the New York City water supply of 1.3 billion US gallons per day. The Delaware Aqueduct leaks up to 36 million US gallons per day. A $1 billion project to repair the leaking is scheduled to begin in January 2013. At 85 miles long and 13.5 feet wide, the Delaware Aqueduct is the world's second longest continuous underground tunnel after the Thirlmere Aqueduct in North West England.
Lake Wood is a reservoir on the Guadalupe River 4 miles west of the town of Gonzales in Gonzales County, Texas. The reservoir was formed in 1931 by the construction of a dam to provide hydroelectric power to the area. Management of the dam and lake was assumed by the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority on May 1, 1963. Lake Wood also serves as a venue for outdoor recreation, including fishing and boating. Lake Wood is also known locally as H-5 Reservoir or Guadalupe Reservoir H-5.
A thermal reservoir, a short-form of thermal energy reservoir, or thermal bath is a thermodynamic system with a heat capacity that is large enough that when it is in thermal contact with another system of interest or its environment, its temperature remains effectively constant. It is an effectively infinite pool of thermal energy at a given, constant temperature. The temperature of the reservoir does not change irrespective of whether heat is added or extracted. As it can act as a source and sink of heat it is often also referred to a heat reservoir or heat bath. Lakes, oceans and rivers often serve as thermal reservoirs in geophysical processes, such as the weather. In atmospheric science, large air masses in the atmosphere often function as thermal reservoirs.
The Holston River is a major river system of southwestern Virginia and east Tennessee. The three major forks of the Holston rise in southwestern Virginia and have their confluence near Kingsport, Tennessee. The North Fork flows 138 miles southwest from Sharon Springs in Bland County, Virginia. The Middle Fork flows 56.5 miles from near the western border of Wythe County, Virginia, joining the South Fork in Washington County southeast of Abingdon. The South Fork rises near Sugar Grove in Smyth County and flows 112 miles southwest to join the North Fork at Kingsport. From there the main stem of the Holston River flows 136 miles roughly southwestward, just north of Bays Mountain, until it reaches its confluence with the French Broad River just east of downtown Knoxville, Tennessee. This confluence is considered to be the start of the Tennessee River. The Holston River valley has been greatly developed for electrical power generation, both with hydroelectric dams and coal-fired steam plants. In the upper reaches, some of these plants are controlled by private interests; in the downstream portion, they are owned by the United States Government's Tennessee Valley Authority. Among the dams and associated reservoirs on the South Fork Holston River are Boone Dam and Boone Reservoir, named for the explorer Daniel Boone; Fort Patrick Henry Dam and Fort Patrick Henry Reservoir, named for the Revolutionary War hero; and South Holston Dam and South Holston Reservoir. Cherokee Dam on the Holston River forms Cherokee Reservoir, named for the historic Native Americans who occupied the areas along the Holston River at the time of European-American settlement. The United States settlers and army fought with the Cherokee over land and eventually removed most of them to territory west of the Mississippi River, under the 1830 Indian Removal Act.
Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil. Reserves may be for a well, for a reservoir, for a field, for a nation, or for the world. Different classifications of reserves are related to their degree of certainty. The total estimated amount of oil in an oil reservoir, including both producible and non-producible oil, is called oil in place. However, because of reservoir characteristics and limitations in petroleum extraction technologies, only a fraction of this oil can be brought to the surface, and it is only this producible fraction that is considered to be reserves. The ratio of reserves to the total amount of oil in a particular reservoir is called the recovery factor. Determining a recovery factor for a given field depends on several features of the operation, including method of oil recovery used and technological developments. Based on data from OPEC at the beginning of 2013 the highest proved oil reserves including non-conventional oil deposits are in Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Canada, and Iran. Because the geology of the subsurface cannot be examined directly, indirect techniques must be used to estimate the size and recoverability of the resource. While new technologies have increased the accuracy of these techniques, significant uncertainties still remain. In general, most early estimates of the reserves of an oil field are conservative and tend to grow with time. This phenomenon is called reserves growth.
|Heavy crude oil|
Heavy crude oil
Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.It is referred to as "heavy" because its density or specific gravity is higher than that of light crude oil. Heavy crude oil has been defined as any liquid petroleum with an API gravity less than 20°. Physical properties that differ between heavy crude oils and lighter grades include higher viscosity and specific gravity, as well as heavier molecular composition. In 2010, the World Energy Council defined extra heavy oil as crude oil having a gravity of less than 10° and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10,000 centipoises. When reservoir viscosity measurements are not available, extra-heavy oil is considered by the WEC to have a lower limit of 4° °API. In other words, oil with a density greater than 1000 kg/m3 or, equivalently, and a specific gravity greater than 1 and a reservoir viscosity of no more than 10,000 centipoises. Heavy oils and asphalt are dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). They have a "low solubility and are with viscosity lower and density higher than water." "Large spills of DNAPL will quickly penetrate the full depth of the aquifer and accumulate on its bottom."