Synonyms containing sendai virus
We've found 1,407 synonyms:
Zaire ebolavirus, more commonly known as simply Ebola virus (EBOV), is one of six known species within the genus Ebolavirus. Four of the six known ebolaviruses, including EBOV, cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola virus has caused the majority of human deaths from EVD and is the cause of the 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, which resulted in at least 28,646 suspected cases and 11,323 confirmed deaths.Ebola virus and its genus were both originally named for Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo), the country where it was first described, and was at first suspected to be a new "strain" of the closely related Marburg virus. The virus was renamed "Ebola virus" in 2010 to avoid confusion. Ebola virus is the single member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, which is the type species for the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The members of the species are called Zaire ebolaviruses. The natural reservoir of Ebola virus is believed to be bats, particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans and from animals to humans through body fluids.The EBOV genome is a single-stranded RNA approximately 19,000 nucleotides long. It encodes seven structural proteins: nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase cofactor (VP35), (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), VP24, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L).Because of its high mortality rate (up to 83–90%), EBOV is also listed as a select agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), a US National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, US CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.
Remdesivir (development code GS-5734) is a novel antiviral drug in the class of nucleotide analogs. It was developed by Gilead as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections, though it has subsequently also been found to show antiviral activity against other single stranded RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, Junin virus, Lassa fever virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and coronaviruses (including MERS and SARS viruses). It is being studied for 2019-nCoV and Nipah and Hendra virus infections. Based on success against other coronavirus infections, Gilead provided remdesivir to physicians that treated an American patient in Snohomish County, Washington infected with the Wuhan coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, and is providing the compound gratis, to China, to conduct a pair of trials in infected individuals with and without severe symptoms.
The Togaviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: ⁕Genus Alphavirus; type species: Sindbis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Chikungunya, Semliki Forest virus ⁕Genus Rubivirus; type species: Rubella virus The Togaviridae family belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses. The genome is linear, single-stranded, positive sense RNA that is 10,000-12,000 nucleotides long. The 5'-terminus carries a methylated nucleotide cap and the 3'-terminus has a polyadenylated tail, therefore resembling cellular mRNA. The virus is enveloped and forms spherical particles, the capsid within is icosahedral, constructed of 240 monomers, having a triangulation number of 4. The receptors for binding are unknown, however the tropism is varied and it is known that the glycoprotein spikes act as attachment proteins. After virus attachment and entry into the cell, gene expression and replication takes place within the cytoplasm. The vector for Togaviridæ is primarily the mosquito, where replication of the virus occurs.
Viral culture is a laboratory test in which samples are placed with a cell type that the virus being tested for is able to infect. If the cells show changes, known as cytopathic effects, then the culture is positive.Traditional viral culture has been generally superseded by shell vial culture, in which the sample is centrifuged onto a single layer of cells and viral growth is measured by antigen detection methods. This greatly reduces the time to detection for slow growing viruses such as cytomegalovirus, for which the method was developed. In addition, the centrifugation step in shell viral culture enhances the sensitivity of this method because after centrifugation, the viral particles of the sample are in close proximity to the cells. Human and monkey cells are used in both traditional viral culture and shell vial culture. Human virus types that can be identified by viral culture include adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, varicella zoster virus, measles and mumps. For these, the final identification method is generally by immunofluorescence, with exception of cytomegalovirus and rhinovirus, whose identification in a viral culture are determined by cytopathic effects.
|Wound tumor virus|
Wound tumor virus
Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreoviridae and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome. This genome is approximately 25,000 base pairs long and organised into twelve segments. All the viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm. The virus is 22% RNA by weight, the other 78% being structural proteins. Structurally, the virus is constructed from 7 different structural proteins. The capsid has icosahedral symmetry, is non-enveloped and around 70 nm in diameter. There is an inner-shell with a diameter of around 50 nm. More than 50 species of plants are potential hosts for Wound tumor virus. It was first reported in Melilotus officinalis. The virus causes tumors to form on the plant at the stem and roots – with the root tumors being more severe. The virus is spread by an insect vector – the Leaf hopper family, notably 'Agallia constricta'. Since viral replication occurs relatively independently of cellular processes, the virus also replicates in the insect vector.
Sendai virus, also known as murine parainfluenza virus type 1 or hemagglutinating virus of Japan, is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, a group of viruses featuring, notably, the genera Morbillivirus and Rubulavirus. SeV is a member of the paramyxovirus subfamily Paramyxovirinae, genus Respirovirus, members of which primarily infect mammals. SeV is responsible for a highly transmissible respiratory tract infection in mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, rats, and occasionally pigs, with infection passing through both air and direct contact routes. The virus can be detected in mouse colonies worldwide, generally in suckling to young adult mice. Epizootic infections of mice are usually associated with a high mortality rate, while enzootic disease patterns suggest that the virus is latent and can be cleared over the course of a year. Sublethal exposure to SeV can promote long-lasting immunity to further lethal doses of SeV. A novel and well-recognized use for SeV is the fusion of eukaryotic cells, especially to produce hybridoma cells capable of manufacturing monoclonal antibodies in large quantities.
|Semliki Forest virus|
Semliki Forest virus
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942. It is known to cause disease in both animals and man. It is an Alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with icosahedral capsid which is enveloped by a lipid bilayer, derived from the host cell. The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. Trimers are anchored in the membrane by an E2 cytoplasmic domain that associates with the nucleocapsid. The size of the virus genome is approximately 13,000 base pairs. The 5’ two thirds of the genome encode non-structural proteins and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3’ third. Replication occurs via a negative strand intermediate giving rise to a full length genomic RNA for export in new virions and a subgenomic message that is translated into the structural proteins. Semliki Forest virus is spread mainly by mosquito bites. It is not able to infect mammals through inhalation or gastrointestinal exposure although rodents in the laboratory can be infected by intranasal instillation. The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents, but only one lethal human infection has been reported. Even in this one case, the patient was immunodeficient and had been exposed to large amounts of virus in the laboratory.
Poxviruses are viruses that can, as a family, infect both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Four genera of poxviruses may infect humans: orthopox, parapox, yatapox, molluscipox. Orthopox: smallpox virus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus; Parapox: orf virus, pseudocowpox, bovine papular stomatitis virus; Yatapox: tanapox virus, yaba monkey tumor virus; Molluscipox: molluscum contagiosum virus. The most common are vaccinia and molluscum contagiousum, but monkeypox infections are rising.
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes, sometimes called water warts. It is caused by a DNA poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus. MCV has no nonhuman-animal reservoir. There are four types of MCV, MCV-1 to -4; MCV-1 is the most prevalent and MCV-2 is seen usually in adults. The virus that causes molluscum is spread from person to person by touching the affected skin. The virus may also be spread by touching a surface with the virus on it, such as a towel, clothing, or toys. Once someone has the virus, the bumps can spread to other parts of their body by touching or scratching a bump and then touching another part of the body. Molluscum can be spread from one person to another by sexual contact. This common viral disease has a higher incidence in children, sexually active adults, and those who are immunodeficient, and the infection is most common in children aged one to ten years old. MC can affect any area of the skin but is most common on the trunk of the body, arms, groin, and legs. It is spread through direct contact or shared items such as clothing or towels. There is evidence that molluscum infections have globally been on the rise since 1966, but these infections are not routinely monitored because they are seldom serious and routinely disappear without treatment. The virus commonly spreads through skin-to-skin contact. This includes sexual contact or touching or scratching the bumps and then touching the skin. Handling objects that have the virus on them, such as a towel, can also result in infection. The virus can spread from one part of the body to another or to other people. The virus can be spread among children at day care or at school. Molluscum contagiosum is contagious until the bumps are gone. Some growths may remain for up to 4 years if not treated.
Arenavirus is a genus of virus that infects rodents and occasionally humans. At least eight Arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from Arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic meningitis, a severe human disease that causes inflammation covering the brain and spinal cord, can arise from the Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Hemorrhagic fever syndromes are derived from infections such Guanarito virus, Junin virus, Lassa virus, Lujo virus, Machupo virus, Sabia virus, or Whitewater Arroyo virus. Arenaviruses are divided into two groups: the Old World and the New World viruses. The differences between these groups are distinguished geographically and genetically. Because of the epidemiological association with rodents, some arenaviruses and bunyaviruses are designated as Roboviruses.
Mosaic viruses are plant viruses that cause the leaves to have a speckled appearance. Mosaic virus is not a taxon. Species include: ⁕beet mosaic virus ⁕plum pox virus ⁕tobacco mosaic virus ⁕cassava mosaic virus ⁕Cucumber mosaic virus ⁕Alfalfa mosaic virus ⁕Panicum mosaic satellite virus ⁕Tulip breaking virus
|Vesicular stomatitis virus|
Vesicular stomatitis virus
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV; often still referred to as VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae; the well-known rabies virus belongs to the same family. VSIV can infect insects, cattle, horses and pigs. It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it infects cattle. This is because its clinical presentation is identical to the very important foot and mouth disease virus.The virus is zoonotic and leads to a flu-like illness in infected humans. It is also a common laboratory virus used to study the properties of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, as well as to study viral evolution.
|Lumpy skin disease|
Lumpy skin disease
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious disease in cattle caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, also known as Neethling virus. The disease is characterized by fever, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and multiple nodules (measuring 2–5 cm in diameter) on the skin and mucous membranes (including those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts). Infected cattle also may develop edematous swelling in their limbs and exhibit lameness. The virus has important economic implications since affected animals tend to have permanent damage to their skin, lowering the commercial value of their hide. Additionally, the disease often results in chronic debility, reduced milk production, poor growth, infertility, abortion, and sometimes death. Onset of fever occurs almost one week after infection by the virus. This initial fever may exceed 41 °C and persist for one week. At this time, all of the superficial lymph nodes become enlarged. The nodules, in which the disease is characterized by, appear seven to nineteen days after virus inoculation. Coinciding with the appearance of the nodules, discharge from the eyes and nose becomes mucopurulent.The nodular lesions involve the dermis and the epidermis, but may extend to the underlying subcutis or even to the muscle. These lesions, occurring all over the body (but particularly on the head, neck, udder, scrotum, vulva and perineum), may be either well-circumscribed or they may coalesce. Cutaneous lesions may be resolved rapidly or they may persist as hard lumps. The lesions can also become sequestrated, leaving deep ulcers filled with granulation tissue and often suppurating. At the initial onset of the nodules, they have a creamy grey to white color upon cut section, and may exude serum. After about two weeks, a cone-shaped central core of necrotic material may appear within the nodules. Additionally, the nodules on the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth, rectum, udder and genitalia quickly ulcerate, aiding in transmission of the virus.In mild cases of LSD, the clinical symptoms and lesions are often confused with Bovine Herpesvirus 2 (BHV-2), which is, in turn, referred to as pseudo-lumpy skin disease. However, the lesions associated with BHV-2 infections are more superficial. BHV-2 also has a shorter course and is more mild than LSD. Electron microscopy can be used to differentiate between the two infections. BHV-2 is characterized by intranuclear inclusion bodies, as opposed to the intracytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of LSD. It is important to note that isolation of BHV-2 or its detection in negatively-stained biopsy specimens is only possible approximately one week after the development of skin lesions.
Shamoon, also known as W32.DisTrack, is a modular computer virus that was discovered in 2012, targeting recent 32-bit NT kernel versions of Microsoft Windows. The virus has been noted to have behavior differing from other malware attacks, due to the destructive nature and the cost of the attack and recovery. Known years later as the "biggest hack in history," the virus was apparently intended for cyber warfare. Shamoon can spread from an infected machine to other computers on the network. Once a system is infected, the virus continues to compile a list of files from specific locations on the system, upload them to the attacker, and erase them. Finally but when the virus overwrites the master boot record of the infected computer, making it unusable. The virus has been used for cyber warfare against the national oil companies of Saudi Arabia's Saudi Aramco and Qatar's RasGas. Its discovery was announced on 16 August 2012 by Symantec, Kaspersky Lab, and Seculert. Similarities have been highlighted by Kaspersky Lab and Seculert between Shamoon and the Flame malware.
RNA viruses are a group of related viruses that have genomes made of RNA (ribonucleic acid). They encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which is used to transcribe the viral RNA genome into messenger RNA (mRNA) and to replicate the genome. Viruses in the group share a number of characteristics involving evolution, including high rates of genetic mutations, recombinations, and reassortments. RNA viruses constitute the kingdom Orthornavirae in the realm Riboviria. They are descended from a common ancestor that may have been a non-viral molecule that encoded a reverse transcriptase instead of an RdRp for replication. The kingdom is subdivided into five phyla that separate member viruses based on their genome type, host range, and genetic similarity. Viruses with three genome types are included: positive-strand RNA viruses, negative-strand RNA viruses, and double-stranded RNA viruses. Many of the most widely known viral diseases are caused by RNA viruses, which includes coronaviruses, the Ebola virus, influenza viruses, the measles virus, and the rabies virus. The first virus to be discovered, tobacco mosaic virus, is an RNA virus. In modern history, RNA viruses have caused numerous disease outbreaks, and RNA plant viruses infect many economically important crops. Most eukaryotic viruses, including most human, animal, and plant viruses, are RNA viruses. In contrast, there are relatively few prokaryotic RNA viruses.