Synonyms containing units, derived

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Gaussian units

Gaussian units

Gaussian units constitute a metric system of physical units. This system is the most common of the several electromagnetic unit systems based on cgs (centimetre–gram–second) units. It is also called the Gaussian unit system, Gaussian-cgs units, or often just cgs units. The term "cgs units" is ambiguous and therefore to be avoided if possible: cgs contains within it several conflicting sets of electromagnetism units, not just Gaussian units, as described below. The most common alternative to Gaussian units are SI units. SI units are predominant in most fields, and continue to increase in popularity at the expense of Gaussian units. (Other alternative unit systems also exist, as discussed below.) Conversions between Gaussian units and SI units are not as simple as normal unit conversions. For example, the formulas for physical laws of electromagnetism (such as Maxwell's equations) need to be adjusted depending on what system of units one uses. As another example, quantities that are dimensionless (loosely "unitless") in one system may have dimension in another.

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Unit of measurement

Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity. Any other quantity of that kind can be expressed as a multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, a length is a physical quantity. The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre". Measurement is a process of determining how large or small a physical quantity is as compared to a basic reference quantity of the same kind. The definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to the present. A multitude of systems of units used to be very common. Now there is a global standard, the International System of Units (SI), the modern form of the metric system. In trade, weights and measures is often a subject of governmental regulation, to ensure fairness and transparency. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) is tasked with ensuring worldwide uniformity of measurements and their traceability to the International System of Units (SI). Metrology is the science of developing nationally and internationally accepted units of measurement. In physics and metrology, units are standards for measurement of physical quantities that need clear definitions to be useful. Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method. A standard system of units facilitates this. Scientific systems of units are a refinement of the concept of weights and measures historically developed for commercial purposes. Science, medicine, and engineering often use larger and smaller units of measurement than those used in everyday life. The judicious selection of the units of measurement can aid researchers in problem solving (see, for example, dimensional analysis). In the social sciences, there are no standard units of measurement and the theory and practice of measurement is studied in psychometrics and the theory of conjoint measurement.

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Statampere

Statampere

The statampere (statA) is the derived electromagnetic unit of electric current in the CGS-ESU (electrostatic cgs) and Gaussian systems of units.:278 One statampere corresponds to 10/ccgs ampere ≈ 3.33564×10−10 ampere in the SI system of units. The name statampere is a shortening of abstatampere, where the idea was that the prefix abstat should stand for absolute electrostatic and mean ‘belonging to the CGS-ESU (electrostatic cgs) absolute system of units’.The esu-cgs (or "electrostatic cgs") units are one of several systems of electromagnetic units within the centimetre–gram–second system of units; others include CGS-EMU (or "electrostatic cgs units"), Gaussian units, and Lorentz–Heaviside units. In the cgs-emu system, the unit of electric current is the abampere. The unit of current in the Lorentz–Heaviside system doesn't have a special name. The other units in the cgs-esu and Gaussian systems related to the statampere are: statcoulomb – the charge that passes in one second through any cross-section of a conductor carrying a steady current of one statampere statvolt – the electrostatic potential difference such that moving a charge of one statcoulomb through it at constant speed requires one erg of work to be done. statohm – the resistance of a conductor that, with a constant current of one statampere through it, maintains between its terminals a potential difference of one statvolt

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Combat support

Combat support

In the United States Army, the term combat support refers to units that provide fire support and operational assistance to combat elements. Combat support units provide specialized support functions to combat units in the areas of chemical warfare, combat engineering, intelligence, security, and communications. Combat support should not be confused with combat service support, which are units which primarily provide logistical support by providing supply, maintenance, transportation, health services, and other services required by the soldiers of combat units to continue their missions in combat. Expressed another way, Combat Support units are focused on providing operational support to combat units, while Combat Service Support units are focused on providing logistical support to combat units. Actual combat units are collectively referred to as combat arms units; hence, all army units fall into the category of either combat arms, combat support, or combat service support. Within the U.S. Army, the combat support branches are the: ⁕Chemical Corps ⁕Corps of Engineers ⁕Military Intelligence Corps ⁕Military Police Corps

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International System of Units

International System of Units

The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built around seven base units, 22 named and an indeterminate number of unnamed coherent derived units, and a set of prefixes that act as decimal-based multipliers. The standards, published in 1960, are based on the metre-kilogram-second system, rather than the centimetre-gram-second system, which, in turn, had several variants. The SI has been declared to be an evolving system; thus prefixes and units are created and unit definitions are modified through international agreement as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. SI is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used in both everyday commerce and science. The system has been nearly globally adopted. Only Burma, Liberia and the United States have not adopted SI units as their official system of weights and measures. In the United States metric units are not commonly used outside of science, medicine and the government; however, United States customary units are officially defined in terms of SI units. The United Kingdom has officially adopted a partial metrication policy, with no intention of replacing imperial units entirely. Canada has adopted it for most purposes, but imperial units are still legally permitted and remain in common use throughout a few sectors of Canadian society, particularly in the buildings, trades and railways sectors.

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Imperial units

Imperial units

The imperial system of units, imperial system or imperial units (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act 1824 and continued to be developed through a series of Weights and Measures Acts and amendments. The imperial units replaced the Winchester Standards, which were in effect from 1588 to 1825. The system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement but imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries formerly part of the British Empire. The imperial system developed from what were first known as English units, as did the related system of United States customary units. The modern legislation defining the imperial system of units is given in the Weights and Measures Act 1985 (as amended).

— Wikipedia

Abampere

Abampere

The abampere, also called the biot after Jean-Baptiste Biot, is the basic electromagnetic unit of electric current in the emu-cgs system of units. One abampere is equal to ten amperes in the SI system of units. An abampere of current in a circular path of one centimeter radius produces a magnetic field of 2 π oersteds at the center of the circle. The emu-cgs units are one of several systems of electromagnetic units within the centimetre gram second system of units; others include esu-cgs, Gaussian units, and Lorentz–Heaviside units. In these other systems, the abampere is not one of the units; the "statcoulomb per second" or statampere is used instead. The other units in this system related to the abampere are: ⁕abcoulomb – the charge that passes in one second through any cross section of a conductor carrying a steady current of one abampere ⁕abhenry – the self-inductance of a circuit or the mutual inductance of two circuits in which the variation of current at the rate of one abampere per second results in an induced electromotive force of one abvolt ⁕abohm – the resistance of a conductor that, with a constant current of one abampere through it, maintains between its terminals a potential difference of one abvolt

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Combat arms

Combat arms

Combat arms (or fighting arms in non-American parlance) is a collective name for troops within national armed forces which participate in direct tactical ground combat. In general they include units that carry or employ a weapon system, such as infantry, cavalry, and artillery units. The use of multiple combat arms in mutually supporting ways is known as combined arms. In some countries, notably the British Army, the artillery units are categorised as combat support. Some armies such as the United States Army, classify combat engineers as a combat arm also, while armoured troops constitute a combat arm in name although many have histories derived from cavalry units. This is also true for the combat aviation units in many armed forces throughout the world. Artillery is included as a combat arm primarily based on the history of employing cannons in close combat, and later in the anti-tank role until the advent of anti-tank guided missiles. The inclusion of special forces in some armed forces as a separate combat arm is often doctrinal because the troops of special forces units are essentially specialized infantry, often with historical links to ordinary light infantry units.

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Statohm

Statohm

The statohm is the unit of electrical resistance in the electrostatic system of units which was part of the CGS system of units based upon the centimetre, gram and second.The static units in that system were related to the equivalent electromagnetic units by a factor of the speed of light. Those units were known as absolute units and so the equivalent of the statohm was the abohm and their proportions were: 1 statohm = c2 abohms = 8.987551787x1020 abohms where c is the speed of light in centimetres per second. These units are not common now. The SI unit of resistance is the ohm. The statohm is nearly a trillion times larger than the ohm and is the largest unit of resistance ever used in any measurement system. The statohm as a practical unit is as unusably large as the abohm is unusably small. 1 statohm = 8.987551787x1011 ohms

— Wikipedia

Abohm

Abohm

The abohm is the basic unit of electrical resistance in the emu-cgs system of units. One abohm is equal to 10-9 ohms in the SI system of units; one abohm is a nanoohm. The emu-cgs units are one of several systems of electromagnetic units within the centimetre gram second system of units; others include esu-cgs, Gaussian units, and Lorentz–Heaviside units. In these other systems, the abohm is not one of the units. When a current of one abampere flows through a resistance of 1 abohm, the resulting potential difference across the component is one abvolt.

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Motor unit

Motor unit

A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that axon. Groups of motor units often work together to coordinate the contractions of a single muscle; all of the motor units within a muscle are considered a motor pool. All muscle fibers in a motor unit will be of the same fiber type. When a motor unit is activated, all of its fibers contract. In vertebrates, control of muscle contraction force is accomplished by controlling how many motor units are activated for a given motion. The number of muscles fibers within each unit can vary within a particular muscle and still more widely from muscle to muscle; the muscles that act on the largest body masses have motor units that contain most of the muscles fibers whereas smaller muscles consist of less muscle fibers in each unit. For instance, thigh muscles can have a thousand fibers in each unit, while extraocular muscles might have ten. Additionally, muscles which possess more motor units are thus able to control force output more finely. Invertebrates organize their motor units differently; each muscle has few motor units, and each muscle fiber is innervated by multiple neurons, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Thus, while a human muscle controls force by regulating how many motor units are turned on, invertebrates control force by regulating the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals.

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Multiple unit

Multiple unit

Multiple units are self-propelled train carriages capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still being controlled from one driving cab. Often these are passenger trainsets consisting of more than one carriage. Single self-propelling carriages are multiple units if capable of operating with other units. Multiple units are classified by their power source and are of two main types: electric multiple unit or diesel multiple unit. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel-electric, diesel-mechanical or diesel-hydraulic. Locomotives utilising multiple-unit train control are not multiple units.

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Abcoulomb

Abcoulomb

The abcoulomb or electromagnetic unit of charge is the basic physical unit of electric charge in the cgs-emu system of units. One abcoulomb is equal to ten coulombs. CGS-emu units are one of several systems of electromagnetic units within the centimetre gram second system of units; others include cgs-esu, Gaussian units, and Lorentz–Heaviside units. In these other systems, the abcoulomb is not one of the units; the statcoulomb is instead. In the electromagnetic cgs system, electrical current is a fundamental quantity defined via Ampère's law and takes the permeability as a dimensionless quantity whose value in a vacuum is unity. As a consequence, the square of the speed of light appears explicitly in some of the equations interrelating quantities in this system. The definition of the abcoulomb follows from that of the abampere: given two parallel currents of one abampere separated by one centimetre, the force per distance of wire is 2 dyn/cm. The abcoulomb is the charge flowing in 1 second given a current of 1 abampere.

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Abmho

Abmho

Abmho or absiemens is a unit of electrical conductance in the centimetre gram second system of units. It's equal to gigasiemens. The emu-cgs units are one of several systems of electromagnetic units within the centimetre gram second system of units; others include esu-cgs, Gaussian units, and Lorentz–Heaviside units. In these other systems, the abmho is not one of the units.

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Degree of polymerization

Degree of polymerization

The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or polymer or oligomer molecule.For a homopolymer, there is only one type of monomeric unit and the number-average degree of polymerization is given by D P n ≡ X n = M n M 0 {\displaystyle DP_{n}\equiv X_{n}={\frac {M_{n}}{M_{0}}}} , where Mn is the number-average molecular weight and M0 is the molecular weight of the monomer unit. For most industrial purposes, degrees of polymerization in the thousands or tens of thousands are desired. This number does not reflect the variation in molecule size of the polymer that typically occurs, it only represents the mean number of monomeric units. Some authors, however, define DP as the number of repeat units, where for copolymers the repeat unit may not be identical to the monomeric unit. For example, in nylon-6,6, the repeat unit contains the two monomeric units —NH(CH2)6NH— and —OC(CH2)4CO—, so that a chain of 1000 monomeric units corresponds to 500 repeat units. The degree of polymerization or chain length is then 1000 by the first (IUPAC) definition, but 500 by the second.

— Wikipedia

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A synonym of "kittenish"
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